Yield and stem stiffness (Thopmson & Hughes 1986).

Yield losses is one of the problems within food crop productivity including in soybean commodity. One of the causes of yield losses in soybeans is the occurrence of pod shattering. The soybean yield losses due to pod shattering may be reached 100%, depending on the susceptibility of the soybean varieties used, the growing season, and the duration of
harvest delays. In the tropical area of Indonesia, most of the soybeans are cultivated during the dry
season, thus the days to maturity is during
the peak of the dry season. This condition will increase occurrence the pod shattering. Furthermore, the development of
soybeans outside the Java Island will be faced with the scarcity of labor and this will caused delays in the soybean harvest and also spur the occurrence of pod shattering.

Pod shattering is the opening of mature pod
along the dorsal or ventral sutures and followed by seed dispersal when the
crop reaches maturity and during harvesting (Bara et al. 2013). Prevention the yield losses caused by pod shattering is
different with due to biotic (pest and disease)
or abiotic
(such as drought) stresses, which can be done by
pest and disease controlled or irrigation. The effective way to minimize the
pod shattering is by using resistant variety. Morphological
architecture of plant, anatomical structures of the pod, chemical composition
of the pod wall, genetic constitution of the variety and environmental
conditions at maturity determine the degree of pod shattering  (Gulluoglu
et al. 2006).

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Development of resistant variety requires genetic variability, and it has
been reported that soybean resistance to pod shattering was controlled
by two genes, i.e. dominant and non dominant genes (Rubaihayo et al.
2000, Sujata et al. 2012). Soybean resistance to pod shattering is associated with
various pod morphology. Adeyeye et al. (2014) reported that pod diameter was negatively correlated
with pod shattering.  Soybean genotype with small pod, less width and low volume/weight of seed was tolerant to pod shattering (Bara et al. 2013). Soybean resistance to pod
shattering is also determined by pod attributes, such as angles, length, and width and plant architecture such as plant height and stem
stiffness (Thopmson & Hughes 1986). A study from
physiological activity, Agrawal et al. (2002) revealed that the activity of
cellulose enzyme is shifted from the nonshattering zone to the shattering zone
in susceptible variety and vice versa in resistant variety. On Brassica napus plant, it was reported that pod shattering resistance was positively
correlated with pod wall weight, but not correlated with pod density, pod
length and width, or seed number per pod (Morgan et al. 1988). A molecular study on pod
shattering have already begun, such as by Funatsuki et al.
(2014) which found that the gene for the shattering-resistant genotype, pdh1, was defective,
having a premature stop codon.

Pod shattering on
soybean have become a serious problem in soybean production centers, both in
tropical and sub-tropical regions. Various environmental
factors which caused pod shattering were low humidity, high
temperature, and rapid tempera­ture changes, and dry weather followed rains at
harvesting (Mohammed 2010; Kuai et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2016).  A screening for
pod shattering resistance on 150 soybean genotypes derived from crossing by Krisnawati & Adie (2017) obtained several resistant genotypes. Adeyeye et al. (2014) performed screening for pod resistance in the field
and pot, and obtained the rate of shattering from 0.8
– 8.6% and 0.7 – 3.7%, respectively. A research by Antwi-Boasiako
(2017) found
six moderately resistant to pod shattering, namely SIT-M TGx1904-6F, SIT-E
TGx1835-10E, SIT-M TGx1987-40F, TGx1903-7F, SIT-E TGx1448-2E and Anidaso. The
opportunity to obtain soybean resistant to pod shattering is having a high
chance of success. However, development
of soybean improved variety is not only resistant to pod shattering but also
must have high economic value and conform to requirement of industrial raw
material.

The aim of the research was
to to identify the
resistance of several soybean genotypes to pod shattering and the performance of the agronomic characters