When the world are born in bilingual

When the child starts to gain language? He starts earlier than most of
us think and ends much later than we think too, because there is an end of
sound and grammar acquisition, but there is always some new world learn,
therefore, it is an ongoing process.

The child starts learning language by imitation and exploring through babbling,
then he  uses a one word sentence, next a
two word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his language
which is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing skills too.
Many scientists studied languages acquisition and developed theories about
vocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicable
only to the English language, but also to other languages too. Literacy is not
restrained in its use in education or at work, it is part of our everyday life
in malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacy
practice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use of
language, to have confidence in delivering deliver his messages properly in written
and spoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to the
image he wants to deliver to the people around him.

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The orthography system of the English has its downsides which cause some
difficulties that the child needs to conquer to have a good command over the
language, but it has its upsides that simplify the learning of this language.
Currently English is an international language that is not just used by native
speakers but also by non-native speakers. Through the course of  learning English there are identical or
divergent problems that both speakers face because two third of the children
around the world are born in bilingual environment.

The language was among the first inventions of the human being, it has
its various system that represent people’s identity and history that has been
passed on through generations. allowing the new generations to express their
own time by their own terms which gives the language new words and uses, caused
the language to change constantly according to people’s need.

The theories about language acquisition were an effort of many scientists
that study one language perspective at the time grammar ,discourse…etc. Getting
those bits and pieces into the jigsaw of language acquisition gives us the big
picture and its complexity and wondering  nature.




Language is a mean of communicating and expressing
thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken language emerged first by making
sounds that represent pictures which address the auditory system, then letters
and words that address the ophthalmic system of the human being. The necessity
of a writing system aroused from the need to record events and communicate it
with different people across the different period of time, different writing
systems were developed across the word which varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806)
It relates symbols or pictographs  to letters,
syllables and sentence to communicate written language .                                                                                                                                 

Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the child
starts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,
so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,
receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connection
between spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver the
meaning of the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.ca).                           

Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”
(www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the proper
letter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com) .               

a perfect  language, letters correspond
with sounds, but the English language is a syllabic language and has its characteristics,
it consists of twenty-six letters written from right to left in a sideways top
to bottom. In a perfect language every letter corresponds to a sound, however,
some of them correspond with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).The
inconsistencies in the English orthography made English a challenging language
to acquire even for children who are mono-lingual English native speakers,
because many inconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and their
presentation of more than one sound, but also at the level of words.
Historically the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and
became an international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or
second or foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin,
German, French, Danish which brought many words into the language and changing
other words meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French
and Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello,
now it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building on
what is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is
opaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the English
language causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes the
prediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)

There are
other difficulties that face not just children but adult too, for example some sounds
stayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through or
thought, other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like:
wrong and knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology,
Island. Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is
pronounced vegtable (www.thought.com),
and some English letters give many different pronunciations for the same letter
for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar ,morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived.(allington,mayor,2012)                                                                                               

 Studies in various aspects of language led to
development of new methods of teaching the English language based on different
perspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for its
efficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,
which depends on the need and the necessity of the child to express his
emotions, needs, and his social identity in the society. How children acquire
language is contentious between the anthropologist, sociolinguists,
psychologists…etc, and there are many perspectives of their studies one of
them is the social perspective toward how a child acquires literacy and what
they do with literacy in their everyday life, and since spoken and written
language are closely related literacy is a part of a wider communicative
practice, and using literacy in this sense involves exchanging knowledge with a
social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential role the way the
children acquire language, and how they get involved in practices that will
help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybook
reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,
and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the
society that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the
level of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,
and social class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how he
deals with the difficulties that he faces which is part of the child

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with
children in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary
texts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to
learn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning
and make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed in
bilingual communities that are affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level, and the bilingual children may have some
impediments in learning English for example if their other language is written
from right to left, not from left to right they may start writing English from
right to left, or they may think about the subject in one language and write it
in another or they may code-switch during writing.                  

In the end every child has the right to have the best
of his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life and
having difficulties in learning and writing should be  treated starts as a little human with the
ability and the need to express his thoughts, ambition and the right to define
himself as somebody with possibilities