“When you can’t make them see the light, make them feel the heat” quoted by Ronal Regan the 40TH president of USA during a NASA visit. Ronald mentioned about the significance of the development of NASA organization for the overall development of the country. It defines the quality of leadership that one should project as soon as he overtakes this responsibility. A leader as defined by the Cambridge dictionary is a person in control of a group, country or a situation, and thus it becomes very important to understand the characteristics, properties of the field in which you are leading.
The various political organizations in a nation are like a VIOLET spectrum of light, there are some extreme right and left ends to the ideologies but more than that it depends on the acceptable behaviour of the society. The political spectrum of the society can be understood as the various political ideologies starting from the extreme left of communism, Fascism, socialism, social democracy, democracy, objectivism, libertarianism and anarchism. These ideologies play a very crucial role in the current scenario as each political party is attached to them and with the rapidly changing dynamics of the world economy it becomes tough for them to stick to it. For example, the leadership of China which is further discussed calls itself to be a communist party but over the time, the thought process of the leaders has allowed it to move to the centre of the political spectrum with more liberal policies.
Over the period since the 1970s, developed countries have improved their relative productivity performance, but there remains a significant gap in market sector productivity between Developed and developing countries. Much of the gap between them is due to lower levels of skills and leadership (policies).
The technical aspect that a leader should possess is the ability to develop new ideas, services, jobs and processes which exploit technology. It may be driven by new technology (How can we use this?) or by needs (What technology might we apply to improve this?). Technical leaders should be able to rightfully apply their knowledge to the practical aims of human life or to changing and manipulation of the human environment for its betterment. Thus, the economic growth of a nation is affected by the lack of technical leadership in its political spectrum.
The economic growth of a nation has always remained the most robust empirical findings in the research field. The evidence of effects on earnings of individuals education qualification can easily be analysed but how does the educational attainment affect the decisions taken by the leader in its tenure is something that brings the new aspect. The competitive nature of our education system, helps the leaders to make more sensible policies by comparing their consequences, identifying the input costs and the level of efficiency that can be achieved in the execution of the policy. For example, the decision taken by Gujrat government to provide 511 acres of land to Maruti Company in Hasanalpur, and taking away the project from the Bengal government. This action by the then Chief Minister of Gujrat Narendra Damodardas Modi shows the competitive nature and the significance of technology investments that a government should take.
The assumption that the highly qualified leaders are more responsible and environment-friendly favours the leadership qualities indirectly. The beauty pageants have one thing common to their contestants and that is that all have some contributions towards the environment. Some may be having their own non-Governmental organization working on a specific project like ‘Beti Bachao,beti padhao’, Sanitary Napkin campaign and etc. whereas some work with governments as ambassadors to propagate social welfare schemes. Thus the leaders are looked up as the responsible citizens of the society. It has been statistically seen that the leaders with more educational attainment have a large statistically significant effect on voter participation and support for the freedom of speech. As Plato and Aristotle famously said ” Viewing leadership as an expression of responsible citizen” but the fact is that the relationship between the education and leadership need not be casual, it can be correlation too.
The Archigos dataset, identifies the primary ruler in each country and ear between 1875 and 2004, the prime ministers and Presidents of the respective states are taken into consideration and thus the credibility can be stored in the research. The dataset for the educational qualifications of the respective leaders comes from Besley and Reynal-Querol which includes their higher secondary and graduation qualification. The important aspect of the research of this data lies in the fact that it also includes the special training or any professional courses pursued by the politicians in their career.
The Null hypothesis took by the research that claims leader quality is affected by the education qualifications and thus the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. The leaders with higher education qualifications saw a hike in the GDP size and rate during their tenure whereas the transition leaders saw a decline of negative 0.2%. It is straightforward that a leader (prime minister or a president) may involve himself more into the domestic politics and look for his self-interest instead of relying on the bureaucrats for national policies and risking the national interest.
The research takes a dummy variable denoted by graduate education, which takes the value of one if there are around 66% of country leaders in our sample has the existence of heterogeneity and thus the estimated model allows effects to be heterogeneous according to data. Thus, the results suggest that the growth effect of an educated college leader leaving office is similar to that of a leader with post-graduate qualification leaving office.note, however that growth now appears to increase when a non-college educated leader leaves office. This results can be interpreted by noting that an exit from office of a poorly educated leader leaves open the possibility that a new leader comes in who is better educated leading to a higher growth rate. Thus, the growth reduction owing to the loss of a highly educated leader, which is showed to be on average 0.7 percentage points is even larder if the next leader is not highly educated. With the help of reduction in growth rate we are able to see the change effect of a leader on growth and why it is important for leaders to be educated.
To understand the above-mentioned results from the current scenario, we should look out for the current political system of our nation. Taking the example of Delhi elections in 2014-15 where the congressional leadership had a stronghold by remaining in power for the last 3 terms ( 15 years) , and the Aam Admi Party came into picture with set of highly educated leaders such as Arvind Kejriwal ( IIT graduate), Prashant Bhushan ( Supreme Court Judge), Manish Sisodia used technological desires of the youth in their manifesto to come into power and to bring transparency in the working of the government. The education of these emerging leaders helped them to analyse and acknowledge the voter’s and the vote bank behaviour which lead to tremendous success in the respective elections.
The next important question that arises from this research paper is which growth rate policies are affected by leaders and also that growth is just a narrow outcome of educated leaders and there is the existence of other factors that are affected by these leaders. Here, we are only taking into consideration the technological policies initiated by the successful leaders and how these policies affected the growth rate but what about the policies that directly or indirectly contribute to GDP without having any technological aspects. It depends on what stage of development is the country at as for the poor nations of Africa may have large effect of a small technological change (bringing lights to their home), whereas the veto powers are investing on space research ( another type) and are not getting meaning full results till now that may show the direct effect on GDP.
A family dreams about a car, when they have met their expectation of basic standards of living such as food, shelter and clothes, similarly a nation invests in its technology upgradation when they have successfully uplifted the living standards of the general public. A technical leader needs to acknowledge the very basic fact and thus invest onto technological policies in the respective fields of development.from the experience of China, India and Mexico suggest that developing countries have strong potential for innovation and technology management. Technological innovation across the world is one of the driving forces behind productivity advance. The existence of chief technology management component, developed infrastructure, coordination and linkages development between educational institutions and business world, up gradation of knowledge and skills in the context of country’s specific technical, cultural and social environment are only part of indicators of innovation and technology management.But as the technology development is challenged by the lack of deep pockets
India has also seen its part of such emerging leaders in its developing stage at 1980’s. Under Rajiv Gandhi, the government made some tentative moves to encourage capital-goods imports, relax industrial regulations, and rationalize the tax system. The consequence was an economic boom incommensurate with the modesty of the reforms. Rajiv Gandhi employed former Rockwell International executive Sam Pitroda as his adviser on public information infrastructure and innovation. Rajiv Gandhi emphasized on the projects like MTNL and VSNL, he brought the telecommunication services to the rural masses and the projects of assembling technologies started taking place in various areas. The future developments of ISRO and DRDO were very important decisions that Rajiv Gandhi took as the development of satellites and Missiles required decisions from the top government officials.
The physical appearance of a leader also plays a crucial role in its leadership qualities as each society accepts some different kind of leaders. A leader from a Punjab panchayat may be a well built with high pitch voice whereas a leader from a small province of Jharkhand may not be that physically appearing and thus may not look that appealing that is the person whom the society will be following. A leader from a poor suburb area of a city should be malnourished as the card of malnutrition is very effective for political leaders in order to relate them to the specific society.
Jayant Sinha is a senior member of parliament from the current ruling government and the Minster of state for civil aviation is an active writer on editorial page of times of India and his article ‘India’s own Google and Facebook-The time has come’ mentioned about the need to develop products and services that will solve “the problems of our very own’. Solving the problems of India will eventually result in solving the worls’ problem as the same products and services will be used in all other similar places. Having studied in Harvard Business school and worked for Mckinsey & company, he knows that to lead in the 21st century, India has to become the entrepreneurial engine. The Unicorn company with market capitalisation of 1 billion dollars should not be enough as the mega unicorns with a market capitalisation of hundred billion dollars is still to come, and if we are able to build companies of that scale, we will have the economic leadership.
Technological development can never be predicted in advance as the research development may take and still not give fruitful results and thus the political leaders need to be visionary in their policy approach. The visionary political leadership is very much scarce in the societies, and the basis of VPL is probably human beings’ need to identify with the belief systems that provide meaning to life and protection against existential pains. Though there are risks present with VPL as many horrific visions are presented, it also brings stress and strain and thus affects the decision making of the leaders. The best example of the technological knowledge and visionary approach is Donald Trump. In the article, it has been claimed by the research agencies that Donald Trump used Facebook as an effective tool to propagate his agendas and thus was able to address to a larger audience. Being a businessman and understanding the opportunity costs of effective tools, he knew that the use of technology in the country has been effective and the person who will be able to use it in these elections will have the ball in its court.
Justin Trudeau, also one of the famous global leaders has been showing a class in the political leadership, and as being a youth icon, he is more able to relate to technology. At current, Canada has been highly investing in Artifical Intelligence and knowing this fact that AI will be the next big thing around the world. Justin has made sure that the party remains in his favour on his decisions to invest heavily in tech savvy companies. He has focused on building a brilliant team that handles the policy-making and keeps him up to date about the development in the technological world. His ability to open up and sustain real conversations prove to be effective for his leadership qualities as it helps him to rewrite his resume. The famous quote he mentioned “Perfection isn’t required but vulnerability is” to apologise for his mistake and accept them as learning in order to remain transparent in front of the public.
Thus, education plays a crucial role in the development of a leader as it is important for a leader at the current scenario to understand the rules,regulations, current development in rest of the world and factors that are related to the society. A leader should be active enough to stay aware of the decisions taken by its competitive leaders and all these qualities are developed through time and cannot be developed in a single day. A leader should be able to acknowledge the importance of what affects the current development of the nation and how should the budget of the nation should be divided throughout the various fields in order to maximize the development of the nation. A leader should be capable enough to avoid the hindrances that are being caused by its surroundings and should keep itself on the right track. The physical appearance of a leader also plays a crucial role in the political acceptance of the leader and thus a leader should be able to show its people the visionary living standards that he wants the public to achieve. The various political parties in the country from extreme leftist to rightist have successfully accepted the fact that technological leadership is very important to lead and thus understanding and acknowledging this fact to rest party members and residing the fact with their ideologies is something that the political leaders are still solving. It is very hard for the traditional leaders to accept, innovate and execute these new forms of development.