i. them and develop their own sets

i. The objectives and goals of the functional unit

ii. The operational results required to achieve the stated goals

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iii. Alternate approaches to achieve these goals

iv. The outcomes and resource requirements associated with each approach.

In the second step, an evaluation of the approaches is carried out, by ranking of the alternatives, which in turn is based on cost-benefits or cost-effectiveness analysis.

In the third step, funding priorities are worked out by the management for each alternate approach, again based on cost-benefit or cost-effective analysis.

The initial ranking of expenditure alternatives is done at the level of managers responsible for specifying project parameters at the operational level. Thereafter, managers at successively higher levels of responsibility consolidate them and develop their own sets of priorities.

Aggregating the subordinate’s recommendation into final rankings of expenditure alternatives for the institutions is finally decided at the highest management level.