There are also other examples of some successful managers having been removed from important managerial position either on change of ownership of the institution or for their failure to work under a different organisational culture.
After a lot of research, it has now been established that successful management rests on three basic skills technical, human and conceptual.
These three skills are not absolute and mutually exclusive, but interrelated.
1. Technical Skill:
Technical skill is the understanding of and proficiency in specific type of activities involving methods, processes or techniques, e.g. those of an engineer or a doctor.
It implies specialised knowledge in that trade and proficiency in the use of techniques and tools of the trade, and which can be easily observed and assessed.
2. Human Skill:
All managers achieve the organisational objectives through the efforts of others in the organisation. Human skill is the skill in dealing with people (rather than things or objects).
It involves ability and judgement in working with and through people, including an understanding of motivation.
This skill is demonstrated in the way the individual perceives his superiors, equals and subordinates, and requires awareness of their attitudes, beliefs and feelings. It also involves the ability to effectively communicate with others so as to influence their behaviour.
3. Conceptual Skill:
Conceptual skill involves the ability to understand complexities of the whole organisation and how changes in any one part of the organisation affect others.
This knowledge permits the managers to act according to the objectives of the total organisation rather than only on the basis of needs of the problem at hand.
The success of decision depends on the conceptual skill of managers who make the decision.
The attitudes and values of top manager make up an organisation personality which distinguishes good organisations from others.
4. Importance of the Three Skills:
The mix of these skills varies as an individual advances in management from supervisory to top management position. At the lower levels of every organisation, technical skills are the most important.
As the manager advances from lower to higher levels in the organisation, less technical skills tend to be needed.
Although it is important at the lower level as well as the highest level, human skill assumes paramount importance at the middle management level.
At the higher level, conceptual skill assumes more importance in policy decisions, strategy formulation and planning action.
The chief administrator at the highest level may lack technical skills and human skills, and still be effective. But if he has poor conceptual skill, it is bound to land the organisation into problems.
While the amount of technical and conceptual skill needed at different levels of management varies, the common denominator that appears to be crucial at all levels is the human skill.