A one-to-one relationship of ‘my patient, my nurse’ exists resulting in more individual care and greater work satisfaction.
2. Group Assignment Method:
One nurse is assigned to a group of patient to provide total nursing care. This can be considered an enlargement of the case method described above.
3. Functional Assignment Method:
Nurses are assigned to functions, e.g. TPR taking, medication, sponging, maintenance, duty and so on. Here, the nursing care becomes fragmented among many nurses, and impersonal. (However, for practical purposes some activities, e.g. serving diet, assisting doctor in dressing are assigned functionally).
This method has some advantages which make those accustomed to it hesitant to change it. In this method, more can be accomplished in a given period of time.
However, this gives the patient a service which is to some extent unsatisfactory and unsatisfying unsatisfactory because responsibility for the attention given to patient is arbitrarily divided between several people, unsatisfying because the attention itself is apt to be impersonal.
4. Team Nursing Method:
Assignment of a group of the patients to a team of the nursing (2 to more) staff headed by a staff nurse. This method has resulted due to shortage of staff to give total care.
Other nurses and nurse aides are incorporated in the team to take care of the load, as many parts of care do not require the technical ability of a highly skilled professional nurse.
The assignment of duties is based upon analysis of functions to be performed, competencies available and supervision required. This approach is quite effective if properly organised and supervised.
However, here too nursing care is fragmented and non personalized. The concept is based on the philosophy that a group of nursing personnel with graded competencies working together in a coordinated, cooperative way can meet all needs of patients more economically.
5. Primary Nursing Method:
Primary nursing method is akin to the case method. The primary nurse assumes 24-hour accountability for the care, planning and evaluation. When on duty on a shift, the primary nurse herself assumes responsibility for providing total care.
Other function of primary nurse is the coordination of nursing activities with physician and other health professionals.
In determining the number of nurses required for a service in the hospital, it has to be understood that nurses have to carry out two types of actions in relation to patient care.