This process and is regarded as an

This
study compared the healing effects of EE 1 % alone with combination it and
licorice 10% extract in male rats after burn wound injury. The results of the
present study showed that topical use of EE and mixture of EE and licorice
might accelerate the wound healing process and is regarded as an effective
dressing for 3rd degree burn.

Antibacterial
activity of the leaf extracts of EC has been reported and it can be attributed
to the action of the phytochemical compounds (Ayepola and Adeniyi 2008). Cheesbrough showed polyphenolic
compounds and volatile oils are known to inhibit the activity of a wide range
of organisms (Cheesbrough 1998). Also, the antimicrobial activity
of the extracts could be explained by the presence of tannins. The action
mechanism of tannins is based on their ability to bind with proteins thereby
inhibiting cell protein synthesis (Zamiri et al. 2015). Oyedeji et al reported that the
salve of the eucalyptus leaves can be applied over the ulcer and wound (Oyedeji et al. 1999). Essential oil of EC and some
species of eucalyptus inhibit peripherally- and centrally- mediated nociception
as anti-inflammatory effect, which is similar to neutrophil-dependent mediators
(Yang et al. 2017). Siramon and Ohtani showed that
the whole essential oil and fractions of EC have antioxidant properties (Siramon and Ohtani 2007). Eucalyptol has been used to treat
sinusitis and bronchitis which seem to be related to an anti-inflammatory
action due to inhibition of the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (Sadlon and Lamson 2010). All previous studies and our
findings showed similar results.

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Di
Mambro and Fonseca showed that licorice extracts had excellent antioxidant and
free radical scavenging activities in topical formulations (2.5 %). They also
showed that it may be used in topical formulations in order to protect the skin
against damage caused by free radical and reactive oxygen species (Di Mambro and Fonseca 2005). Licorice topical gel (1 and 2 %)
could be considered as an effective agent for treatment of atopic dermatitis
and reduces erythema, oedema and itching.23 Several studies revealed that the
characteristic steroid structure of glycyrrhizin and ?_ and ? _ glycyrrhetinic
acids isolated from licorice might possess anti-in?ammatory,24 anti-tumor,25
and corticoid-like properties (Asl and Hosseinzadeh 2008). Also, low-dosage corticosteroid
treatment of chronic wounds in topical route has been found to accelerate wound
healing, reduce pain and exudate, and suppress hypergranulation tissue
formation in 79% of cases; also, the prolonged use of corticosteroid could
cause a potential increased risk of infection (Hofman et al. 2007; Pereira
et al. 2005). Glabridin as a
component of licorice is a potent antioxidant towards LDL oxidation,28 whereas
isoliquiritigenin is known to exert vasorelaxant effect, anti-platelet,
anti-viral, estrogenic activities and has the protective potential against
cerebral ischemic injury (Zhan and Yang 2006). Since we administered licorice
extract with high concentration (10%), adverse effects of this extract that
include hypokalemia, mineralocorticoid excess, oedema, myophaty, anti-platelet,
and corticoid-like activity out-weighed its beneficial effects (Asl and Hosseinzadeh 2008). Tanideh et al reported
hydroalcoholic licorice extract 10 % led to impairment of burn wounds that
might be attributed to toxicity of the components with signs of oedema and
infection on burn area (Tanideh et al. 2014). This finding showed that licorice
did not have any effect on P.aeroginosa; this result confirms those of Cushnie
et al.’s study (Cushnie et al. 2003).

Chithra
et al showed that aloe vera caused an increase of collagen and fiobroblast via
glycoprotein fraction on burn wound.32 Several studies showed that Sea
buckthorn and olive oil have antioxidative, antimicrobial, adaptogenic, and
tissue regenerative properties (Gupta et al. 2005; Negi
et al. 2005; Saggu et al. 2007). Also, the root of Astragalus
membranaceus has tissue regeneration, angiogenesis and anti-inflammation
properties on wound repair. The mechanism disclaimed to be related with
decreasing the TGF-1 secretion and collagen type I/III ratio (Chen et al. 2012). Although SSD is an effective
anti-bacterial agent, it delays the healing process of the wounds by inhibiting
the proliferation of the keratinocytes and fibroblasts (Fuller 2009). This fact was observed in the
present study.

Another
important factor in the healing of burn wounds is the wound strength (Cushnie et al. 2003). Biosynthesis of new collagens by
fibroblasts has a key role in the healing process. Collagen fibers help the
wounds to gain TS during repair (Gao et al. 2006). On the other hand, collagen
intermolecular cross-links were essential in providing the stability and TS of
the skin. Cross-linking formation took place as the triple helical collagen
molecules lined up and began to form fibrils and then fibers (Chithra et al. 1998). Also, the TS recovery of healing
skin is related to several factors, including healing time and the nutritional
status of the healing tissues (Lu et al. 2000). Heat
denaturation, such as in thermal burn, destroys the helical structure of the
collagen molecule and if the temperature is sufficiently high, it cleaves the
Schiff-base bond, thus solubilizing a fraction of intact collagen as a high
molecular weight gelatin (Quirinia and Viidik 1991). Platelet releasing causes an
increase in the collagen content, resulting in promoting wound repair (Currie et al. 2001).

In
the present study, it was revealed that eucalyptus group healed better than
mixture of eucalyptus and licorice group. This subject might be related to the
collagen content on the wound repair in burned areas. Anti-platelet and oedema
properties of licorice in high dose may be attributed to impaired wound healing
(Asl and Hosseinzadeh 2008). Since burn wounds treated with
the eucalyptus gel showed greater TS compared with other treated groups, it may
be inferred that not only does it increase collagen synthesis per cell, but
also, it aids in cross-linking of the protein. Eucalyptus gel-treated wounds
also showed an increased rate of wound contraction, leading to quicker healing
as confirmed by decreased period of epithelialization when compared with the
other groups.