These of transition from urban core to urban

These two articles are
commentary on informality, and urbanism in contemporary India. The first
article “Slumdog Cities: Rethinking Subaltern Urbanism” narrated the urbanism
which is excluded from the hegemony of structural power of the city. Here slums
are been seen as subaltern urbanism, which is merely excluded from the
hegemonic administrative power of the city. Through several literatures the
author wanted to narrate that, slum itself is a different world, which has its
own distinct characteristics, which has its own income generation power. The
author put Dharavi slum in Mumbai, as an example. Nowadays, Dharavi, is the
core of small scale industry and also core of informal sector, where annual
turnover is approximately US $665 million. The author tried to pull out the
nexus between epistemology and methodology of urban study, that does mean, the
priori knowledge of urban study and corresponding methodology of urban study
and the transformation of the way in which global south is been defined or is
been studied. This article theorized the subaltern spaces and subaltern classes
in megacity.

The author grounded four
major concepts, like, periphery, urban informality, zones of exception and gray
spaces, to know the distinct kind of urbanism.

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Here the author quoted
Simone’s concept that, the periphery is not only the space of transition from
urban core to urban outer boundary, it is also the space which is been
generated through interventions of urban restructuring, capital flows,
policing, humanitarianism and control. This concept of periphery has crucial
role of making theory of space and urbanism as well. It also can make
distinction between core urban area and urban periphery by theorizing space
concept. Author emphasized the wok of Los Angles school of Geography, where
metropolis, hinterlands, and periphery organized city cores in postmodern era.
Author also drawn the concept of Simone that, periphery can be used as an
advantage for its peripheral status. Periphery concept explained the
incongruent form of urban structure that disrupts and expands the boundary of
subaltern urbanism, as it can break the linkages between, the city core and
city periphery, urban rich and poor, white and black kind of several social
issues, and can enhance social pathologies.

In this case, the author
tried to point out informality in various forms and tried to shift our priori
knowledge of slum as informality towards the knowledge of elite informality.
Here in this article several literatures are been drawn like, urban informality
is not bounded by the space of slum or deprolitarianization. According to
author informality can be seen through the idiom of urbanisation. Several
writers has identified elite informality, where, informality can be occurred on
the land of government’s public works departments, specially provoked by mafia
organisation, and these are been attracted by infrastructure, legitimacy and
services, as these are the expression of class structure or power. These kind
of informality are not been recognised or not been manifested easily, as these
are veneered by elite class structures. The author also quoted Ghertner’s view
of looking informality, like, the law has always pointed out slum as nuisance
and the citizen of slum as secondary category of citizen. According to A. Roy,
many of illegal construction are been taken place on stretch of agricultural
tracts. Elite informalities and culpabilisation of subaltern informalities are
been drawn by theorizing informality.

According to several
literatures, zone of exception can be measured by sovereign power and bio
political power, which is the coexistence and contrast of transnational zones,
and political control and social regulation.

Some writers and experts,
put the concept of gray space, which is been defined as a space between
legality and illegality, a position of approval and disapproval. It is a
stretch spectrum of powerful, elite classes to landless invaders. So, in this
space, there are high tendency of creation of sovereign power and tendency of
turning into black or illegal space. Here in this article the author stated
subaltern urbanism as urban shadow, which is defined by politics of
recognition. Here the term ‘recognition’ is in concern.

In the second article “Why India cannot plan its cities”, the
author tried to point out that how infrastructure and growth management are
been illustrated through the mechanism of informality and insurgency. Urban
crisis is been theorized through urban informality. Basically, urbanisation process
has formed the boundary of development, and also the impossibility of
territorial development and justice.

In this article author
has explained the effect of neoliberalism and capital accumulation and accumulation
dispossession (Harvey: 1970s) especially on infrastructure, which is another
form of informality. This neoliberal effect has been illustrated through the
example of Bangalore and Calcutta, where, Bangalore is suffered from lack of
proper infrastructure. Here the author has explained in that manner, in
Bangalore, the airport, which is quite far from core city, was modelled after
Zurich airport, which depicts the enough capital inflows, but failure of proper
infrastructure, like there are no enough or sufficient water supply near or
around the airport are, so no office, shops are been placed near or around the
airport. According to author, planners are often underestimate the need of
sufficient infrastructure, and she also drawn the explanation that, this kind
of insufficient infrastructure can be seen due to shift of state intervention
to private intervention.

Zone of exception is been
created with suspending laws and creating exceptional bene?ts for corporate
investors. Which is been called Geobribes by Harvey (1989).  In post modernism era all cities are trying
to compete with one another, due to share of capital, but states are often play
role of informality by offering deals and incentives to corporate investors,
which is the evidence of informality by state itself. Urbanization is
delineating the realm of development and also enhance informality.

There are two idioms of
urbanization like, informality and insurgency, about which the author has
explained. Management of resources are the major counterpart of urban planning,
so urban planning can be illustrated by proper management of resources
especially, land, upon which most of informalities can be happened in the form
of ownership, use and purpose of land which is not been fixed. It also been
explained that, world class look of urban structures as the form of modernism,
often violates building byelaws. Here it is been questioned that what is
planning? Basically it is the relation between published plan and unmapped
territory. State promoting informality by giving permission private.

The author gave four propositions
of informality, like, informality is not associated with poverty, as it is
associated with class and power of the society. Informality can be also
happened on public land, which can be privatized and marketized as well. This
kind of informality is not less valorized in compare to squatter settlement, or
slum.

Informality is
deregulated rather than unregulated. Deregulation defined the calculated
informality which consists of purposive action and planning. Deregulation is
associated with resource allocation and accumulation and authority.

State is itself an
informalized entity which has informality from above. The author has explained
that, there are existence of informal sector which is known as shadow city or
gray space, and this has to be explained as power structure and bio political
power. As an example author said that, state allowed Left Front to displace
squatter settlements as well as sharecroppers by the mechanism of land
acquisition in Calcutta, to make Special Economic Zones (SEZ). So, here the
existence of top down informalities.

Author has put the
concept of urban populism, which is elaborated by establishing of hegemony of
political power on mobilization of population by delivering land, housing and
public service. These incentives are been given to the population for voting of
political and electoral parties. In this case, right to the city is often
expressed by ownership of land, such kind of notion of right to the city has
clearly distinct the between legality and illegality of territory.  

Conclusion
and criticism

Here recognition of
informality is in main concern, this is viewed through several dimensions. In
this article informality is been illustrated in philosophical way, and on the
basis of ontology, which has shifted the view from epistemology. Basically,
through the entire articles it can be said that, poor people are been trapped
within the nexus or network legality and illegality, this informality has been
challenged by poor people. It can be stated that, there are no trickledown
effect is happening in the society and urban power structure, as there are
enough capital inflows in the IT sectors in Bangalore but most citizens are
suffered from lack sufficient water supply, irregular electricity connection,
traffic congestion which defined that blockage of trickledown effect. So,
blockage of trickledown effect is been depicted upon top down informality. From
both of the articles it can be said that, development itself lead to the
limitation of territorial development and injustice through urbanisation
process which is been manifested in the form of informality.

Here in the first
article, the author has explained the concept of informality in philosophical
way, which is kind of complicated. Another side in the second article it has
been explained that as world class look of urban structures as the form of modernism
violates building byelaws, but, Indian society has reached to contemporary era,
where all phenomena goes up to extreme. So, these concept of informality, insurgency,
and urbanisation are the terms, which are been adjusted within the contemporary
container.