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The Hair Repair ChallengeMaterials Science Experimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherEva Bermont640 W. Scott St. Chicago, IL 60610Grade #7Table of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 2Purpose and Hypothesis Page 3Review of Literature            Page 4Materials and Procedure Page 8Results Page 12Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 14Reference List Page 17AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank my mom for getting my supplies needed to complete my experiment and project, along with providing advice on how I should perform my experiment.   Purpose and HypothesisPurpose: My test question for my project was, “Can a rose be used to determine which hair product system is best at repairing hair?”  The purpose of my project was to determine whether a rose could be used to simulate hair and be able to show which product system works best.Hypothesis: If Dove claims that their Intense Repair Shampoo and Conditioner are better than their competitors due to their rose experiment, then a rose can be used as a way to determine which repairing duo is best because it has similar qualities to hair like it’s sensitivity to heat and water, along with it’s bright color and overall fragility.Review of Literature There are many beauty companies that want to prove that their formula is best when it comes to fixing and protecting damaged hair.  However, some companies have chosen to bring in abnormal testing materials to prove such claims, like roses.  But are they an accurate indicator or proper tool that can simulate the effects of the products on real hair?  First, it is important to understand what hair is and what it is made up of, along with what a rose is made up of.  One must also understand how hair and roses are affected by heat, and how they compare and contrast.  Lastly, it’s important to analyze products that claim to reverse these effects, their costs, and their ingredients, why they were put in their and their purpose in the product. The anatomy of the hair is a very complex structure that is very important to the human body. The Merriam Webster Dictionary describes it as “A slender threadlike outgrowth of the epidermis of an animal;  especially  :one of the usually pigmented filaments that form the characteristic coat of a mammal” (Merriam Webster, 2017, para. #1).  “Every hair has three layers — the inner fibers make up the medulla; the cortex surrounds the medulla; and the cuticle is the outer layer that protects the inner, more sensitive components from damage, Mirmirani says.  Each hair grows about 1/4 inch every month out of a follicle on your head, and it can keep growing for up to six years. Then as part of the natural cycle of hair, it will fall out and make way for a new hair ” (Hatfield, n.d., para. #8/9).  This reveals that hair is incredibly strong and protected to start with, and damage to the follicle such as blow drying will definitely ruin the hair.  This also shows that there are many natural cycles that the hair goes through in order to accommodate the many strands that are constantly growing at varying rates.   The anatomy of a rose is very similar to that of a hair strand since they share their defining characteristics such as color and size.  “The rose is a woody perennial that was originally from China but is now grown across the world. It is characterized by wide range of colors and sizes.  Roses are multi-petal flowers available in an array of colors. Some varieties are known for their prickles along the stems of the plant, which are used to deter predators. Many species are now cultivated although there are still varieties that grow in the wild” (Flowers, n.d., para. #1/2).  Even though it’s characteristics are the same, roses and hair still differ in some areas like the fact that a rose is a plant, while the hair strand grows out of the body.  Based off of a basic description there are still some differences shown, however their reaction to heat is actually quite similar.  Naturally Curly.com says, “Heat damage occurs when the protein bonds in the hair have been permanently altered to the point that the hair does not return to its natural curl pattern and your hair struggles to retain moisture as it once did” (Starghill, 2015, para #1).  This is often the case for many people who use heat tools for their appearance everyday, especially for users who don’t have as much time and often use more heat than necessary.  “If you heat keratin to around 215-235°C (419-455F) the alpha helix starts to melt. This is a physical change and it is irreversible, your hair will retain the shape of the melted keratin at a molecular level. Your hair shows you this molecular damage by not getting back into its natural curl or wave and staying straighter” (Starghill, 2015, para. #2).  “Keratin, fibrous structural protein of hair, nails, horn, hoofs, wool, feathers, and of the epithelial cells in the outermost layers of the skin. Keratin serves important structural and protective functions, particularly in the epithelium. Some keratins have also been found to regulate key cellular activities, such as cell growth and protein synthesis” (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015, para #1). This shows that even with few uses, these hot conditions can change your hair for the worst, however some could possibly say that the eventual outcome is what they wanted in the first place but, what ever hair they have left would be severely damaged.  Keratin is a key protein for hair so it is incredibly important that it is not compromised or harmed in any way. Roses are also not the biggest fans of heat since, “High temperatures affect the biological processes of photosynthesis. When the roots can’t take up enough water, the leaf tissue furthest from the veins will dehydrate and crisp” (Elgar, n.d. para #6). “Ask any rose gardener who lives in the desert and they will tell you that their bloom production falls off dramatically after the month of May. Roses are not tropical plants” (Elgar, n.d., para #2). “They may develop brown or black spots on the leaves, which are caused by a fungus that travels on water and can be avoided by making sure watering is done at the ground level.  Rose plants may also seem to wither up or wilt. This could be caused by root rot, which develops when the soil becomes overly wet for too long. Do not over-water roses, and make sure the planting site does not collect standing water” (Sanders, 2017, para. #6).  Even though the rose itself does not resemble hair, it’s response to heat is very similar since it lose much of its distinctive natural features and dies, much like hair does.  Based off of the effects of heat to both objects, Dove clearly had a reason in making an ad that uses roses in order to simulate the damage of heat to hair.Dove and many other companies like to use many creative techniques in promoting their products, but they might not all be true and necessarily make sense for it’s use and dramatization.  Dove claims that their Intense Repair Shampoo and Conditioner, “formulated with Nutri-Keratin Repair Actives, help your hair to recover from damage in two different ways. The formulas repair signs of surface damage, making your hair look and feel smoother and stronger against breakage. It also penetrates the strands to provide hair nourishment deep inside, making your hair look healthier, time after time” (Dove, 2017, para. #3).  Totally Beauty says, “Reviewers call this drugstore shampoo “much-needed therapy in a bottle.” One reader says, “My hair went from seriously fried to manageable in a week’s time.” Another reader was impressed by “how soft and silky her usually frizzy hair felt” after use. Reviewers also find that the product “rinses clean and leaves hair surprisingly untangled … thin, weak hair really does feel softer and stronger” (Montell, n.d., para #9).   So clearly their campaign worked, intriguing customers with their innovative experiment, and their product lives up to their statement providing strength and protection from the constant damage placed on the hair.It is important to test other products that have similar claims and results.  For example, the OGX Argan Oil of Morocco Shampoo and Conditioner have received reviews such as, “Conventional thinking suggests that shampoo cleans, conditioner hydrates, and that’s that. But using a moisturizing duo earns you major extra credit points. Argan oil, found in OGX Renewing Moroccan Argan Oil Shampoo and Conditioner, makes dry, coarse hair softer and silkier because it’s rich in fatty acids” (Denton, 2017, para. #1).  OGX claims “Lather up with this precious blend containing argan oil of Morocco, to help restore and strengthen your locks to silky perfection. It will help protect your hair from styling, without any sulfates or parabens” (OGX, 2017, para. #1).  Along with “This renewing formula helps strengthen and soften all at once, smoothing your locks into their silkiest potential” (OGX, 2017, para. #1).  This is another competitor that seems to be doing well and is recommended by many beauty professionals to this very reason (strengthening the hair and renewing it from damage).  Another drugstore product that is highly marketed is Pantene Pro-V Repair and Protect Shampoo and Conditioner.  Pantene claims, “Nutrient-rich lather nourishes hair, wraps every strand for effortless detangling, and works all day to bring lasting shine” (Pantene, 2017, para. #1).  Elle magazine says, “I’ll say it: Shampoo is boring. True game-changing innovations don’t come along very often. Finally, this year, Pantene launches the holy grail: a shampoo proven in lab tests to deposit replenishing lipids INSIDE the core of each strand. It’s the biggest shampoo breakthrough in 30 years. The new Repair & Protect Shampoo leaves my hair so bouncy and happy and soft, I’m not mad about the 30-year wait” (Dougherty, 2017, para. #12). This is yet one more product that critics are raving about because of it’s special Pro-V ingredient that is new to the hair care world.  It is also a big deal that such a well known and respected author, of one of the largest magazines in the world, absolutely loves this product and says that it is a complete game changer in the beauty world.   People use heat tools such as hair dryer and flat irons to style their hair .  However, after continual use severe damage can occur resulting in weaker and thinner hair.  One of the main ways that people repair their hair is my using damage protection and strengthening products such as shampoos and conditioners.  Many companies have to deal with their competitors and some come up with interesting marketing plans.  For example, Dove used a rose as a way to simulate hair and to show that their product protected hair better than their competitors.  And since roses and hair have the same sensitivities to heat, along with their somewhat similar structures, roses can be used as an adequate model for hair.    Materials and ProcedureMaterials                                                                                             QuantityDove Intense Repair Shampoo and Conditioner                             1 bottle eachPantene Pro-V Repair and Protect Shampoo and Conditioner        1 bottle eachOGX Argan Oil of Morocco Shampoo and Conditioner                 1 bottle eachWater                                                                                                975 mLRoses                                                                                                8Solo Cups                                                                                         5Hair Dryer                                                                                        1Camera                                                                                             1Post Its                                                                                             8Measuring Cup                                                                                1Timer                                                                                               1Procedure #1 Testing Products: 1. Leave out 2 roses (for each duo tested) for about 3 days, (this simulates damaged hair) 2. Measure out 75 ml of shampoo and conditioner and put them into 2 separate cups. 3. Add 60 ml of water to those cups, in order to make it easier to dunk the rose. 4. Fill the remaining 3 cups with 235 ml of water. 5. Submerge rose for 10 seconds in each liquid in this order water, shampoo, water, conditioner, water. 6. Then blow dry the rose at low speed for 2 minutes, making observations (use rating scale) every 30 seconds. 7. Leave the rose to rest for 24 hours, but check in (make observations using rating scale) at the 1 hour, 12 hour, and 24 hour marks. 8. Repeat steps 1-7 for second rose.Be sure to take picture before you start the process, after the blow drying period, and then at each check in.Procedure #2 Natural Rose (No products Used): 1. Leave out 2 roses for 3 days, (so they can simulate damaged hair). 2. Fill 1 cup with 235 mL of water. 3. Submerge rose for 50 seconds 4. Then blow dry the rose at low speed for 2 minutes, making observations (use rating scale) every 30 seconds. 5. Leave the rose to rest for 24 hours, but check in (make observations using rating scale) at the 1 hour, 12 hour, and 24 hour marks. 6. Repeat steps 1-5 for second rose.Be sure to take picture before you start the process, after the blow drying period, and then at each check in.Rating Scale Color Change0, No Change1, Black Edges2, Few Petals Changing3, Mild Color Change4, Majority Color Change5, Complete New ColorPetal Quality0, No Change1, Separation of the Petals2, Folding Petals3, Beginning to Die4, Good Portion is Dead5,  Totally DeadResultsDove Results (Color, Petal Quality)Rose #10,00,00,10,10,10,21,2Rose #20,00,10,20,20,21,21,3Pantene Results (Color, Petal Quality)Rose #10,10,10,10,20,21,21,2Rose #20,00,10,20,21,21,32,4OGX Results (Color, Petal Quality)Rose #10,10,10,10,10,10,21,2Rose #20,10,10,20,20,21,21,3Control Results (Color, Petal Quality)Rose #10,20,20,21,21,21,21,3Rose #20,10,20,20,20,21,21,4Conclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationConclusion: My science fair project is about whether roses can be used to simulate in scenarios such as hair repair and protection.  I hypothesized that roses could be used to determine which hair duo protects hair the most/which has the best results in the end.  I tested it by using 8 slightly old, (3-day-old) roses and following the process that you would usually take while washing your hair (you first get your hair wet, then add shampoo, wash it out, add conditioner, wash it out).  I placed each liquid in a separate cups and dunked each rose in each cup for 10 seconds, but for the control (no products) I just dunked it in water for 50 seconds (10 times 5 equals 50).  I then blow dried each rose for 2 minutes (taking observations every 30 seconds) and then leaving them out to dry for 24 hours (checking in at 1 hour, 12 hours and 24 hours). I noticed that many of the roses stayed in fairly good condition overall, however the roses representing the control were fairly weak and light by the end of the testing period, but many of the roses just had black edges and some mild folding nothing really serious, with the exception of a few flowers.  My hypothesis was proven correct because the rose did in fact replicate what the Dove commercial original stated, however as far as products go OGX and Dove had pretty similar result while Pantene did not do so well.  I learned that roses can be used to determine which hair brand/product duo works the best, since my control had similar data, compared to my other roses which had product applied to them.  One product seemed to weaken the rose more than the rose by itself while the other two, did very well only with slight damage/change.  Reflection: I believe that my testing was complete and fair.  I tested 3 different hair repair duos (1 shampoo and 1 conditioner), along with a control test to determine whether a rose is an object that can be used to test hair products or simulate hair in trials.  I used eight “damaged” (a few days old ) roses, 2 for each brand plus the 2 for the control and submerged them in the various liquids or a single cup of water (for 10 seconds in each cup for the products) for a total of 50 seconds. I then blow dried each rose for 2 minutes (making observations every 30 seconds), and then leaving them out to dry for 24 hours total, with check ins at the 1,12, and 24 hour mark.  I followed my procedure very closely and changed it along the course of my experiment so I could have the perfect simulation that is just like a hair routine.  I don’t think that I would have changed my procedure since I spent a lot of time thinking about it and making it very similar to what happens in real life.  However, I would like to test if other flowers can be used as a simulator for hair, like the rose because there are other commercial out there using flowers other than roses, saying that they show what happens if you use their product. Application:  Many people use hair dryers, flat irons and curling irons to style their hair each day.  However, these tools can cause serious damage to hair and many people feel that the only solution is to cut off their dead locks or try to fix it with products including masks, expensive treatments, or shampoos and conditioners from the drugstore that can hopefully reverse what harm has been done.  My experiment determines whether a rose can be used to determine which hair repair duo is best.  This is very important for people who use these tools everyday or have damaged their hair in some sort of way.  This experiment also reveals which brand make the best damage protecting and repairing shampoo and conditioner.  This is beneficial to the field of science because I am testing to see whether damaged roses can be protected from heat and how it affects their structure overtime, along with why they can be used in experiments such as these to simulate hair.  Reference ListArgan Oil of Morocco Conditioner. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.ogxbeauty.com/shop/argan-oil-of-morocco/conditioner/Argan Oil of Morocco Shampoo . (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.ogxbeauty.com/shop/argan-oil-of-morocco/shampoo/Denton, G. C. (2017, November 16). 15 Products That Will Turn Your Damaged Hair Right Around. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.allure.com/gallery/hair-products-to-repair-damaged-hairDougherty, E. (2017, October 13). The Shampoos and Conditioners ELLE Editors Stock Up On. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from http://www.elle.com/beauty/hair/tips/g8088/best-shampoos-and-conditioners-editors-picks/Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015, June 04). Keratin. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/science/keratinElgar, C. (n.d.). Heat Stress and Roses. Retrieved October 21, 2017, from http://www.rose.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Sept12-Heat-Stress.pdfHair. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hairIntensive Repair Shampoo and Conditioner. (2016, October 03). Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.dove.com/us/en/hair-care/shampoo/intensive-repair-shampoo.htmlHatfield, H. (n.d.). 8 Ways You’re Damaging Your Hair. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.webmd.com/beauty/features/8-ways-youre-damaging-your-hairMontell, A. %. (n.d.). 21 Best Drugstore Shampoos. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from http://www.totalbeauty.com/content/gallery/p_drugstore_shampoos/p33052/page9Repair & Protect Products. (2017, March 17). Retrieved October 21, 2017, from https://pantene.com/en-us/product/repair-and-protect-conditionerRose. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2017, from http://www.flowers.org.uk/flowers/flowers-names/q-t/rose/Sanders, A. (2017, July 17). Description of the Rose Plant . Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.hunker.com/13427244/description-of-the-rose-plantStarghill, A. (1970, January 01). 4 Signs You’re In Heat Damage Denial. Retrieved October 20, 2017, from https://www.naturallycurly.com/curlreading/home/4-signs-youre-in-heat-damage-denial