The The opening statement of national policy on

purpose of the chapter is to present the literature relevant to the topic. The
importance of the topic from an international perspective is presented. The
findings from other research studies are shared. The chapter highlights the key
concepts that are specific, relevant or related to illegal dumping. The
concepts are defined in order to give them meaning in the context of this
study. The defining of concepts is followed by literature review. Literature
review focuses on studies of similar nature and what they have revealed about
illegal dumping. The hypothesis of the study read as ” Illegal dumping is a consequence of inadequate waste
management education, awareness and lack of policy enforcement”

opening statement of national policy on provision of basic refuse removal to
indigent households opens with this statement “The provision of an
adequate and sustainable waste service delivery system in South Africa has had
many challenges and there has been very little progress with regard to
significant movement in this area.

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concept of illegal dumping is related to solid waste management. Waste can be
defined as “material, substance or product that the owner no longer wants
at a given place and time”(Londan 2011:70). The concept of domestic solid
waste is critical in the study because the focus is primarily on a site within
a village where a lot of dumping is happening. Domestic solid waste (General
Waste) is solid waste generated by single or multifamily residential dwellings,
and solid waste of a non-hazardous nature ( The
definition can go on to include other establishments that generates
non-hazardous waste. Illegal dumping in this study refers to the dumping of
domestic waste  or refuse on the site
that is not designated for this purpose by the local or provincial authority.
The formal definition of illegal dumping is “discarding waste in an improper or
illegal manner, where it doesn’t belong and/or where environmental damage is
likely because of the improper disposal”. (

management, at a broader level falls with the literature of sustainable
development. The issue of environment and way human interacts with it was first
registered as a global concern in 1972 at the United Nations Conference on the
Human Environment held in Stockholm Treurnicht, (2011:416). One of the outcomes
of the conference was the adoption of the declaration on human environment. The
declaration  identified principles that
are key to the human environment e.g. principle number two speaks about the
natural resources (air, water, flora, fauna) and emphasise that they must be
well managed,  (
whereas principle number six and seven touch on pollution. The two
principles discourages man made pollution 
actions on the oceans/marine resources and other forms of life. The study
of illegal dumping practices can be described as form of environmental
pollution which is directed to land  to
be precise.

 The history of the development of sustainable
development into a concept and later into acts and policies then qualifies
illegal dumping a global problem. According to the Bruntland Commission,
sustainable development is defined as ” development that meets the needs
of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs” (Treurnicht 2011:414). The definition of sustainable
development as a concept can be further understood when the elements or aspects
of sustainable development are brought to light. The aspects of sustainable
development are  social, economic,
cultural, political, geographical and ecological, Treurnicht (2011:414).  

the aspects of social, economic/financial and environmental sustainability are
flagged out as the most profound for development. In SA, definition of
sustainable development is understood to mean “development that does not
use up resources more quickly than they are replaced by natural processes or
new technology” (Treurnicht 2011:415).

from a study of illegal dumping by  Troschinet
& Mihelcic, (2009) There are 12 factors that influence waste management
success particularly sustainable recycling. 
The 12 elements identified by Troshchinet et al (2009:922) government
policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and
segregation, household education, household economics, Municipal Solid Waste Management
administration (MSWM), MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local
recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land
availability. The study conducted touched on elements on government policy,
waste collection and household education.

the SA context, there is a sound legislative framework that guides solid waste
management and the environmental management.  The over-arching act will be The environmental
management act: waste act 59 of 2008 (Republic of SA) states that the act
exists in order to makes provisions for management of waste. Another purpose of
this act is to prevent pollution and environmental degradation as well as to
provide for compliance and enforcement amongst other things. The National
Policy on Provision of Basic Refuse Removal to Indigent Households ((FBRR),
Government Notice  Notice
34385, 22 (June 2011) makes reference to 
makes The Waste Act and states that this act compels municipalities to
put in place Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs). The IWMPs are part of
sustainable waste management. This then means that there is  legislative framework that guides local
government on waste management

of the key concepts that results from the over-arching policy (59 of 2008, Republic
of SA) is Sustainable waste management. This concept implemented through the
development of an Integrated waste management plan at a local government level.
 Each municipality is required to have an
integrated waste management plan. The latter consolidates different strategies
of waste management. The strategies of waste management are better defined by
hierarchy of waste management. The hierarchy is made up of four components i.e.  Reduce (minimise the amount of waste
produced), Re-use ( Use materials more than once) Recycling (use materials more
than once) therefore concerned with  sorting, processing, and transportation of
solid waste materials, products or containers for the purpose of remanufacture
or reused and Disposal which is perceived as the worst or less desired option
for waste disposal. The study will use the hierarchy to reveal which of the
waste management strategies are being employed in the community under study.

analysis of solid waste management strategies implemented in the village under
concern with be scrutinised within the parameters of guiding principles and
concepts of solid waste management. An example will be the principles outlined
in the sustainable development  concept
where it is stated that Sustainable development requires that the generation of
waste is avoided, or where it cannot be avoided, that it is reduced, re-used,
recycled or recovered and only as a last resort treated and safely disposed ( It is for this reason
that hierachy of waste management will be used as a theoretical framework for
the study. Below are images that depicts waste management hierachy, the
difference between figure one and figure 2 is that one provides descriptions
about each waste management strategy.

Figure 1. Source:


 Fig 3. Internationally accepted waste
management hierarchy, which is implemented through the National Environmental
Management: Waste Act, 2008)  Source:



Australian study conducted by North Sydney Environmental Protection Authority
(2015:1) highlight the issue of illegal dumping as an increasing concern in
North Sydney since 2004. The report states that household waste is the most
common form of illegal dumping. Of particular interest that this study revealed
is that illegal dumping cannot be confined to a particular demographic, the
study concluded that any human being is capable of dumping waste. According to
this study the dumping behaviour had nothing to do with level of education,
income levels etc. This remains a very interesting factor because of the
questions that could not be explored with eSkotshi village study. If it was not
for other limitations it would have been worthwhile to compare dumping
behaviours in urbanised sections of the Ethekwini municipality to rural, and
previously advantaged areas where the services of waste collection never
existed prior to democracy.

are at least two studies conducted within Ethekwini municipality on the issue
of illegal dumping. The study by (Abel, 2009) focused on perceptions of illegal
dumping. Amongst the findings is that people have a general belief that it is
the duty of the government to clean after them Abel, (2009:5) therefore
littering is not a problem. The same study  focussed on waste building rubble stored piled
by  private owners to extend their slope.
The said rubble on steep slopes end up blocking storm water drainage, sewer and
contaminates nature.

(2010:91) presents some finding and recommendations of a study conducted in
Clermont KZN, thus highlighting that environmental problems like solid waste
management enjoy low priority in the community. According to Ngeleka, observations
have shown that there is illegal dumping in Clermont, people are more concerned
about meeting their daily basic needs rather than worrying about the
surrounding environment and its immediate problems. There are various reasons
stated by people for practising illegal dumping. These types of conclusions
leaves a lot to be desired in as far as analysis of driving forces behind
illegal dumping are concerned. The results of the Nacelle study in relation to
objectives of the study under concern is thought provoking in terms of how much
effort is put into awareness of environmental care and correct methods of waste
disposal by local authorities.

draft Integrated Waste Management Strategy (2016) for Ethekwini municipality
speak to the issue of illegal dumping. It highlights the causes to be about:
Poor waste removal services within a specific area,  Lack of convenient disposal sites;  Lack of public awareness on the issue
( This proves that the municipality is aware of the
illegal dumping problem. Nevertheless, Ethekwini Municipality is the relevant
authority for waste management in the area of study. The municipality has a
dedicated function called Solid Waste Management.



dumping remains a challenge in this municipality. This study will then
contribute to at least mapping of the areas that are affected by illegal
dumping within the municipality. The study will also make a contribution to
understanding reasons for dumping in the area where there is a waste collection
service. The waste collection service is rendered once a week. It is not known
why residence opt to dump their refuse. The hierarchy of waste management will
be chosen as the theoretical framework. It will help understand waste disposal
methods employed by the residents. The hierarchy of waste management will also
be useful in learning about favoured household waste methods over one another.