The cancer survivors that had previously participated

The topic for
investigation is a question that should come from previous studies and provides
a background for the research. Once you have interpreted those studies you can
then form a hypothesis. There must be a purpose for the study which,
“should demonstrate that it represents an advancement in understanding and
that the eventual results will be meaningful, contribute to the field, and
possibly even impact society” (Balakumar, Inamadar & Jagadeesh, 2013).
There also must be a sample population that can narrow down your target subjects
to allow your results to be more accurate. The research design must be thoroughly
thought through to find the best way to organize the data. Lastly, the data must
be managed by criterion to allow the results to be more uniformed.

 In the article, Religiousness, Spirituality,
and Salivary Cortisol in Breast Cancer Survivorship, they identified their
topic for investigation to be based on how the cortisol levels of breast cancer
survivors effected there religious and spiritual beliefs. Their sample
inclusion used were women who were breast cancer survivors that had previously participated
in other studies and were at least 3 months post treatment. The participants
also had to be able to sign informed consent and speak english (Hulett et al.,
2017). Exclusion for specimen collection would be any use of steroid-based medications,
any type of nicotine use, any recent illness, and even dry mouth (Hulett et al.,
2017). These inclusion and exclusions help make for a more valid and specific

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article was based on an observational, cross-sectional design plan. The participants
were given specific instructions on when to collect a salivary specimen. They
were instructed to collect within a 2-hour time frame of consuming caffeinated
and alcoholic beverages and brushing their teeth (Hulett et al., 2017). After
specimen was collected they were to be refrigerated and returned within 2 weeks
of collection. The management of the results were taken by measuring the cortisol
concentration of each sample using an immunoassay kit (Hulett et al., 2017). The
results showed that there was a higher percentage of an increase compared to a
loss of religiousness and spirituality (Hulett et al., 2017). This article
utilized the different steps in the research process to better explain the results
and help the management of data be more organized and understandable.



P., Inamadar, M. N., & Jagadeesh, G. (2013). The critical steps for
successful research. Journal of
Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 4(2). doi:

J.M., Armer, J.M., Leary, E., Steward, B.R., McDaniel, R., Smith, K.,
Millspaugh, R., & Millspaugh, J., (2017). Religiousness, spirituality, and
salivary cortisol in breast cancer survivorship: A pilot study. Cancer Nursing, 00(00), 00-00. Doi:

A., & Read, K. (2015). Research data management. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 103(3).