The graft shape and size but also there

The property of the bone to regenerate by itself makes an
interesting field in the area of research. However some inborn defects and
disease such as infection, failed arthrodesis, neoplasm, trauma makes the bone
defects to grow beyond a critical size which the body cannot repair. For such
patients the use of bio -degradable scaffolds, bone grafts, bone substitute
materials becomes extremely necessary to aid in healing. This makes the bone to
be second most transplanted tissue across the globe affecting over more than four
million operations by replacing with scaffolds or bone substitute materials annually.

          In spite of
these there are certain limitations to exercise this option. For example if we
take bone grafts from one part of the patient’s body in order to use it in
their own body, it is considered to be one of the better options but here also
there are certain limitations. Autografts are restricted not only by the graft
shape and size but also there lies certain risk to the patients including
infection and severe pain post surgery.

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          So to overcome
this difficulties, a significant branch of research commonly indicated by Bone
Tissue Engineering (BTE)  is considered
to create alternatives to the bone grafts. Now 3D biodegradable scaffolds are
designed to aid in bone regeneration.

          Bone is an
example of a tissue which is continuously modelling and remodelling itself with
the forces acting on it. It is mainly composed of CaCO3, Ca(PO4)2,
collagen and water. The first two is mainly responsible for 60% to 70%of the
weight of the bone and it gives stiffness to the bone which determines its
compressive strength. Collagen on the other hand is a protein which gives the
bone its flexibility and contributes to its tensile strength. So during
fabricating a scaffold it is therefore logical to have a combination of
materials which aid in creating a composite scaffold which will enhance
scaffold bioactivity and structural biomimicry to be achieved