The key challenges. Keywords: Internet of Things, RFID

“Internet of things” has become a growing discussion topic of
conversation not only in the office but also at home since it is a
revolutionary concept that will both change the way we work but moreover the
way we live. So, what exactly is the “Internet of things” and why is
it impacting us or will it impact us? There have been a lot of technical and
policies concerning this topic have been made but many people are still trying
to understand what it is about. Also, they have been different definitions
around the “Internet of things” but in this paper, I wish to stick to
main basics, thus so giving an overview of what this new concept is and how it
affects us in our daily lives.

This article is directed at
providing an all-inclusive overview of the concept of internet of things and
how it applies to human factor designs considerations. Furthermore in this
paper I reviewed the common applications, driving technologies and its key

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Keywords:  Internet of
Things, RFID


In the
mid 2000’s, Kevin Ashton who then worked for MIT Auto ID lab coined the basis
for what might turn into the Internet of Things. He was one of the pioneers who
considered this idea as he researched ways that P company could improve its
business growth by connecting RFID data to the Web.

The idea was basic however very
powerful. If every item in day by day life were outfitted with identifiers and
remote network, these items or devices could speak with each other and be
overseen by personal computers(PCs). In a 1999 article Ashton expressed:
“On the off chance that if we had PCs that knew everything there was to
think about things—utilizing information they accumulated with no assistance
from us – we would have the capacity to track and check everything, and
significantly decrease waste and cost. We would know when things required
replenishing, repairing or reviewing, and whether they were in top operational
condition or past their best. So we needed to enable PCs with their own methods
for gathering data, so they can see, hear and notice the world for themselves, as
a result we utilized firstly Radio frequency identification (RFID) which is a
wireless communication technology that lets computers read the identity of
inexpensive electronic tags from a distance without requiring a battery in the
tags and secondly sensor technology to enable computers to watch, distinguish
and  identify and comprehend the world without
the limitations of information that have to be inputted by humans.

 Internet of Things describes a network where
devices in the physical world are associated with sensors within or joined to
these devices by remote or wireless internet connectivity. As a result, the
Internet of Things will Interface both lifeless and living things, while using
sensors for data collection and change what sorts of thing impart over an Internet
Protocol (IP) network.



By 2020 there
will be much more than 30 billion associated gadgets. That is a considerable amount
of connectivity and the new slogan for the future will be that can be made
smart by connecting with the internet will be connected. But what is our
reason for connecting so may devices with each other? There are numerous cases
for what the value of in globalization of internet of things will be. Say for
instance a student is headed for an interview his automobile could access is
schedule and optimize his/her route. What if our phone’s alarm wakes us up, and
also signifies to our coffee or tea maker to start brewing tea for us before we
get to the sitting room. This section will
highlight some of these applications.

2.1 Smart Traffic.

Smart cities with good
traffic control is a crucial part of the future society. It is important that vehicles
moving on a road or public highway flows efficiently. There is a need for a structure
that can improve the traffic flow in view of real time data obtained from devices
using Internet of Things technologies 43. Such an insightful traffic observatory
system, needs a proper structure for automatic identification of vehicles and
other traffic factors is very key. And as a result, it is imperative that we
require internet of Things and its advancements as opposed to utilizing basic
picture preparing techniques 44. A smart traffic monitoring system aided by
connectivity from the internet of things will provide a good transportation
experience by facilitating free flow of vehicles. It will also provide features
like theft-detection, reporting of traffic accidents, etc. The streets of this smart
city will give redirections with climatic changes. The road lighting system
will be adaptive to weather changes as part of conservation of energy etc.

 2.2 Smart

Internet of Things and its
innovations will be able to accurately predict natural disasters such as hurricanes,
tornadoes, flood etc.

2.3 Smart Home.

Internet of Things will enable
the enhancement of do it yourself (DIY) home automation solutions with which we
will have the capacity to remotely control our machines/ devices according to
our requirements and personal preferences. Correct observation of utility
meters, energy and water supply which will help in energy conservation while
efficiently detecting leaks and power surges etc. enhanced security and trespassing
detection system which will prevent burglaries.

2.4 Smart health centers.

Medical centers will be installed
with smart adaptable wearable devices which will be provided to the sick
patients and via which health practitioners can observe the necessary vital
signs (heart rate, blood pressure, temperature and other conditions) of
patients inside or outside the premises of hospital 45.

2.5 Automated Farming.

Farmers will be able to
observe factors like Soil nourishment, Light, soil moistness etc. and improve
the green housing farming practices by automating watering, fertilization
processes which will lead to optimal crop production.

2.6 Retailing and Supply-chain Administration.

Internet of Things with RFID
gives many preferences to retailers. With the equipping of RFID in items, a
retailer can easily track the stocks and recognize shoplifting. Retailers can
monitor every one of the things in a store and to keep them from going out of



The following are some of the
relevant technologies that aid in the enlargement / global development of Internet
of Things

3.1 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

identification (RFID) is the main technology used in uniquely identifying a
device. Its tiny size and low cost enables it to be inputted into any device.
It is a transceiver microchip which could be either active and passive,
depending on application type. it utilizes electromagnetic fields to distinguish
and detect tags attached to devices. The tags houses electronically saved data.
They are two types of tags, passive and active tags. Active tags have a nearby
power source (for example, a battery) and may work several meters from the RFID
reader. Passive tags collect power from a nearby RFID reader’s radio waves.

3.2 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

A wireless sensor network is
a group of specialized transducers with a communications infrastructure for
monitoring and recording conditions at diverse locations. Typical observed
parameters are temperature, pressure, weight, speed, vibration intensity, sound
intensity, voltage, and fundamental body capacities

3.3 Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is the
delivery of computing services which includes servers, storage, databases,
networking, software, analytics, etc. over the Web. Companies (for example
Goggle) that provide these computing services are called cloud suppliers and
typically charge for cloud computing services based on usage.

The cloud seems to be the
only technology that can analyze and store all the data effectively. The cloud
is by all accounts the main innovation that can dissect and store every one of
the information successfully. cloud computing is the most essential piece of internet
of Things, which unites the servers as well as increases the processing,
analyzing and handling power of the valuable data that is gotten from the
sensors 36.

 3.4 Networking

Networking technologies have
also played a contributing role in the successful development of Internet of
Things since they are responsible for the connection between the devices. For
wide-range transmission network we typically utilize 3G, 4G etc. So also, for a
short-range system we utilize advancements like Bluetooth, WiFi and so on.


3.5 Nano Innovations

This innovation ensures that
miniature and enhanced form of the things are interconnected. Nano inventions ensures
that energy utilization by a network can be simplified, making it more efficient.