Task influential people, theteam and the management need

 Task 1

1.1

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Models of strategic change

Kolb’s Model of Individual
Change

 In 1984 Kolb published his learning styles model.
Kolb’s model of learning styles consist of four different learning styles  known as learning cycles .Knowing a person’s
learning style allows learning to be orientated according to individuals preferred
method. The brief description of Kolb’s model is as follows:

Diverging (Feeling and watching): People with different and
diverging styles are sensitive  and they
prefer to watch rather than to do stuff . They have broad cultural interest and
tend to work in groups of people , to listen with open mind and are usually innovative
and emotional.

Assimilating (watching and thinking): They are the people
with logical approach and concise and give more importance to ideas and
concept and learning They are the
one who excel at understanding wide range of information and organizing it
a clear logical format.

Converging
(doing and thinking) : these kind of people are interested in technicality
 tasks than in people
and interpersonal aspects. They tend to solve issues based on
their past experience and learning. People with a this style like to experiment
with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications.

Accommodating
(doing and feeling): these people don’t work on logical analysis but believe on
their intuitions. They tend to rely on others information and then carry out
their own analysis. They work in teams and actively try out new ways to achieve
the objective.

Kotter’s
8 –Step Organisation Change Model

A
professor at Harvard Business School, John P. Kotter suggested eight steps
of change model in an organisation. They are as follows:

Create
urgency: To spark the initial motivation to get the change moving,urgency
needs to be created. This happens by identifying the potentialthreats and
developing a future scenario.

Form
a powerful coalition: to lead a change, all the influential people,
theteam and the management need to be convinced and a coalition is to
beformed

Create
a vision for change: defining a clear vision helps people tounderstand the
objective of the change and it gives them motivation asthey know what they
are trying to achieve.

Communicate
the vision: By communicating with the key person and everystakeholder of an
organisation honestly about the vision, a momentum isbeing created to achieve
that Change.

Remove
obstacles: if any structure or processes is becoming problem forthe change
then define a strategy to remove those barriers. Clearingobstacles can empower
the people who are required to execute the visionof change.

Create
short term wins: Short term targets need to be created, as successof achieving
these short targets will keep the team and people motivatedto keep the
momentum for the required change.

Build
on the change: Kotter argued that most of the change fails assuccess is
declared too early. With every success a new plan and strategyto be formulated
to continue that success and the area of improvements.

Anchor
the changes in corporate culture: Continuous effort need to beensured to keep
the change in every aspect of the organisation. Thechange should be brought in
the corporate culture and should often bediscussed and talked about by
the leaders in the organisation.

 

Tuckman’s
model of team change

Dr.
Bruce Tuckman published his four stage model of team change in
1965.Itconsists of:

Forming:
This is a stage where the whole responsibility of change lies on theleader, as
individual roles and responsibilities are unclear and team membersare
highly dependent on leader for guidance and direction.

Storming:
In a team decisions does not come easily in start. Every memberseeks a position
in team with respect to other members and leader in order toavoid challenges
later. This is very important part of the processes as thisdefines and enables
common understanding of purpose and roles to beachieved.

Norming:
During this phase agreement and consensus is largely formed amongthe team.
Roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted. The major decisionsare taken
by team discussions and agreement.

Performing:
This is the final stage of team development. The roles are clear nowand team
knows clearly about the vision and the goal they are working upon. The
team works in a collective and mature manner to achieve the goal.

 

1.2

As it’s mentioned in kotter’s
model that a change should be taken as process. Itstarts with creating urgency
in the organisation and forming a clear vision whichincorporates the goals and
objectives. By properly communicating the vision andtaking every member of the organisation in confidence the change processbecomes
more viable and feasible. As corning is planning to implement a new ERP,it
requires a complete planning at the organisation level, since this change is
goingto impact overall organisation. Everyone in the organisation will be directly orindirectly related or affected by this change. So a clear vision needs to becommunicated
among staff and management. A proper planning has to be done toremove the
expected obstacles and a strategy needs to be formulated. The changeshould be planned in a stage wise format with short term goals to keep themotivation
of staff alive. And with every success a new plan should be formulated totake
that change ahead.While discussing about organizational change model, we can’t
give less importanceto team model and the individual ones. As it’s the team which initiates andfacilitates
the change in an organisation, so it has a major relevance, because if theteam doesn’t work and fails in its project then the change can’t reach at anorganizational
level and hence causing failure of change process. We should consider the individual model
of change as well, as the change is successful when itevery individual accepts the change and changes accordingly. So in today’sscenario
organisation has to take into account all these three models of changewhile
deciding the strategic change.

 

1.3

 Assessment
of Strategic Intervention Techniques in organisation

Strategic
intervention techniques helps organisation to find their own core
of strengths and is helpful doing the process of change. Organisations
need to bechanging conscious and henceforth they need to develop human
resourcetechniques to involve everyone and prepare them for the change. By
adoptingstrategic intervention techniques model, organisations can build
bridges of successand advancement with all workers cooperating as
team mates as well themanagers.Some of the organisation development
Intervention techniques are:

Role
playing: It is basically a contingency plan to prepare a group
in absenceof the superior or the other team mates. Role playing is a
prescribed way of behaving.

 Team
Development: It is regarded as the very foundation of developing workgroup
maturity and effectiveness. Setting goals, priorities and to examine
therelationship between among the people doing work are few of the
objectivesof team development.

Survey
feedback: Nadler (1997) argued that recipients must see feedbacks asa
stimulus for action rather than final statement. Information should begathered
by personal interviews or survey questionnaires and should beanalyzed and be
used effectively.

Inter
group problem solving: Joint meetings should be held regularly
to avoidinter group conflicts. During such meetings members are
allowed to speakand discuss freely and sort out their differences.

Process
Consultation: The process involved should be thoroughly discussed and consulted
with every party concerned with. It is generally done to endthe conflicts among
different teams and people involved and to prepare them for the change.

TASK 2

2.1

Theavailable
IT system is not in position to deliver the growing needs of
business. TheScala5.1 ERP has a very small base in India and henceforth
there are not easilyavailable resources that can provide support on the
product. The principal companywhich acquired Scala. Currently, there arecertain
issues with the management related with the IT ,which cannot be solvedwith the
current ERP, for example import of sales order& purchase order in
thesystem, detailed description and classification of new products to name
a few. It isbecoming more time consuming to enter the daily transactions
and entries in thesystem than the manual process and henceforth delaying the
month end closingprocess of the company, which in turn effecting the
reporting processes.

2.2

There are
various new ERP versions with totally new functionalities available in
theIndian market. These products have vast resource pools and are available at
areasonable price. The product companies are offering a wider range of serviceswhich
are not available in Scala 5.1.Corning is big MNC and they have IT compliance
issues, which is also one of themajor reasons for planning of new ERP. The new
ERP products available in marketdeliver wide range of functionalities and are
highly scalable. They can meet thedemands of future business needs as
well. The current ERPs (SAP all in one, Oraclee-business suite R12) available
in market have the functionalities for the currentissues. The company has
to depend on the freelance consultants in case of any Scalaissues, which in
turn becoming more time consuming and expensive. Byimplementing new ERP,
corning will get specialized resources to help their businessand also
yearly support. The competitors of corning are using more specialized
andlatest ERP system, so it is also effecting the decisions to go for a new
ERP.

2.3

There will be great
implications on the corning business and operations if theresources don’t
responding to the planned change. The resources involved in thischange are the
business heads, the core implementation team, the end users anD    the IT infrastructure that includes both
hardware and software. The implications willbe as follows:

Lack of IT infrastructure, will
cause difficulty in taking the implementationforward and may ultimately
become the cause of failure

If the business head doesn’t
involve fully in the decision making, then theimplementation period will
stretch and it will not be able to meet thedeadlines and the go live
period.

If the core team members
of the implementation team are not fully dedicatedthen it will become
difficult for the external consultants to map the businessprocesses on the
system. It may also result in some wrong map, which in turnwill cause issues
for the business after going live.

If the end users don’t take the
proper training, then they will not be able tocomplete their daily task on time
without any issues. They may also enterwrong entries, which will
further complicate the business processes.

If the transactions are not
entered by the end users properly then it willcause problem in the month end
closing process, resulting in late reporting.

Organisation will lose business
because of late responses from the end users.

Organisation will face issues
with the auditors, as it will become difficult andtime consuming to find
solution for wrong transactions

 

Failure of implementation will
cost a high capital loss to organization

Task 3

3.1

As corning need to do implement
a new ERP, so a proper strategy has to be plannedto involve all the
stakeholders of this project. The Stake holders are:

IT director and team

Finance head and team

Procurement head and team

Sales head and team

Supply chain management head
and team, including warehouse team

Admin team

Managing Director The
activities which need to be undertaken to involve these stake holders
inplanning change are:

Devising a communication
strategy which includes : Meetings, E-mailing,Face to face interaction,
interview, Voting and Questionnaire

Send formal invitation to all
the top management involving all thebusiness heads for the meeting on the
discussion of bringing strategicchange in organisation.

Formal presentation to the
major stakeholders on the needs andfactors for bringing the change
in organisation.

Prepare the minutes of meeting
and forward it to all the members,requesting for their feedbacks.

Once feedbacks are received,
plan a strategy resolve the issues raisedand convince them for the need of
change.

A formal team needs to be
formed and a change leader should bechosen to initiate the change. The team
should have membersrepresenting different business processes.

3.2

A widely accepted theory of management suggests that, within
a group individualbehavior and emotional responses to a given
circumstances are different from eachothers. Similarly responses to
organizational changes are different, some are earlyadopters and majority
of the stakeholders are reluctant to accept the change whilethere always
some who are resistant to change.

Keeping these stakeholders in consideration, a strategy needs
to be formulated. Weare considering common accepted strategies of management,
they are as follows:

Leverage Strategies: This is
generally applied to the early adopters withsignificant influence to
develop their support and utilize their influence toaccelerate the change among
the reluctant majority.

Engagement strategies: The
focus is on the influencers of the reluctantmajority and the goal is to convert
them to early adopters and is leveragetheir influence among those with less
interest and commitments

Containment strategies: These
strategies are basically to target thoseresistant laggards who are unable
to adapt yet because of their high skills,knowledge and abilities
they still contribute to the change.

Outplacement Strategies: The
virulent and influential resistant laggards areprime candidates for
outplacement. These stakeholders are given an earlyopportunity to
demonstrate their acceptance and compliance with thechange process but, failing
that, they face unambiguous consequences.

3.3

As we see,
implementing an ERP involves the top management and also the endusers, so a
proper strategy needs to be formed to involve everyone in the changeprocess.
Change process can initiate only if the stakeholders are wellcommunicated
and educated about the necessities of bringing the change. Theyshould be
well informed, educated and be engaged in the decision making. Theirfeedbacks
should always be taken in account, and all this can be possible only
bydevising a proper communication strategy. Every stakeholder involved
shouldalways be kept in loop on the progress of the project. Stakeholders
should alwaysbe invited when a key decision need to be taken. Acceptance
of their feedbacksmakes them feel motivated and engaged and then they
become the part of theproject. Presentation to the stakeholders should always
be given on the current andaccurate information to keep them updated and to
avoid the thoughts by them of being neglected

3.4

Resistance to change is part of
change process. It is something which can have bothpositive as well negative
impacts on the organisation. Kotter & Schlesinger (1979)explained the
importance of strategy to handle the resistance in the organisation.As per
their theory, the principles are:

Education and Communication: By
properly educating and communicating withthe concerned stake holders about the
change, their misconceptions andconfusions can be sorted out without which they
are full of questions andworries. People tend to accept the change once
they become aware of thechange.

Participation and involvement:
A strategy need to be devised to facilitate theparticipation and the
involvement of the stakeholders in the change process. This gives
them motivation and sense of involvement makes them feel part of the
change to which they don’t try to become a resistance

Negotiation and agreement: When
an organisation goes for a strategic change,then lots of things are at stake.
And it becomes equally important to movetowards change by forming an agreement
among all the members and themanagement through proper negotiations.

Facilitation and support: By
facilitating and supporting the people who areinitiating and managing the
change process, the motivation level of people areincreased and boosts
their confidence which in turn becomes example for othersas well to be
a part of change and taking it forward.

Task 4

4.1

As we see,
implementing an ERP involves the top management and also the endusers, so a
proper strategy needs to be formed to involve everyone in the changeprocess.
Change process can initiate only if the stakeholders are wellcommunicated
and educated about the necessities of bringing the change. Theyshould be
well informed, educated and be engaged in the decision making.
Theirfeedbacks should always be taken in account, and all this can be
possible only bydevising a proper communication strategy. Every stakeholder involved
shouldalways be kept in loop on the progress of the project. Stakeholders
should alwaysbe invited when a key decision need to be taken. Acceptance
of their feedbacksmakes them feel motivated and engaged and then they become
the part of theproject. Presentation to the stakeholders should always be given
on the current andaccurate information to keep them updated and to avoid the
thoughts by them of being neglected.

4.2

Resistance to change is part of change process. It is something
which can have bothpositive as well negative impacts on the organisation.
Kotter & Schlesinger (1979)explained the importance of strategy to
handle the resistance in the organisation.As per their theory, the
principles are:

Education and Communication: By properly educating and
communicating withthe concerned stake holders about the change, their
misconceptions andconfusions can be sorted out without which they are full of
questions andworries. People tend to accept the change once they become
aware of thechange.

Participation and involvement: A strategy need to be devised
to facilitate theparticipation and the involvement of the stakeholders in
the change process. This gives them motivation and sense of involvement
makes them feel part of the change to which they don’t try to become a
resistance.

Negotiation and agreement: When an organisation goes for a
strategic change,then lots of things are at stake. And it becomes equally
important to movetowards change by forming an agreement among all the members
and themanagement through proper negotiations.

Facilitation and support: By facilitating and supporting the
people who areinitiating and managing the change process, the motivation
level of people areincreased and boosts their confidence which in turn becomes
example for othersas well to be a part of change and taking
it forward.

4.2′

Implementation
Plan

If the implementation of the change model is not well planned
then the change willalways jeopardize in between and will result
in failure. We are considering a widelyaccepted change implementation plan
suggested by Johnson, scholes andWhittington. The steps are as follows:

 To gain support of key decision makers and facilitators
by educating themabout the planned change

Make a full detailed plan with schedules and stages of the
change process,agreed by all the business managers and the decision makers

Plan to obtain staff’s commitment to making the strategic
plan work

Involving the end users in the ownership of the plan

Rewarding the end users on plan’s success

 Train the staff and develop new skills which will
contribute to the effectiveimplementation of plan

By keeping check on and record the process

Evaluating the change at different stages

Studying the weak areas and improving them in specified time

Monitoring and reviewing the process on weekly and monthly basis.

4.3

Monitoring progress of change process is important as it measures
the activities andperformances related to it. The progress can be
monitored by devising variousperformance metrics and systems, which will
measure the success of organisationtowards achieving the goal. We are
suggesting some of the widely acceptedPerformance measurement systems to monitor
the progress, these are:

 

Balance
scorecard

: it’s a performance management approach
thatfocus on various overall performance indicators, often including customerperspective,
internal-business processes, learning and growth and financials,to monitor
progress toward organization’s strategic goals.

Benchmarking

: It is basically looking outside the organisation toexamine how others achieve their performance level and to
understand the

processes involved. Benchmarking facilitate improved performance withinthe organisation and the key business processes.  The objective of benchmarking
is to ideally understand and evaluate the current position

 

of abusiness in relation to
“best practice” and to identify areas and means of performance
improvement.

 

Reviews and evaluations

: By setting up model of weekly and monthlyreviews of the process, to keep an eye on the
status of the progress.Evaluation will help to find out the weaknesses or the strengths of theproject.

 

180
and 360 degree feedback 

: By setting up this model of feedback forthe individuals and the team, management will be able to get the
actualperformance and efforts of each and every resource involved with theproject.