Starting was named Venera and the American

from 1960s’ United States and the Soviet Union began to launch probe missions
to Venus. The major Soviet series was named Venera and the American missions
were named Mariner. There are many Venus missions, including seven had analyzed
rock conformations. At large, penetrating pressure and hurricane-force winds
destroy all probes within 60 minutes, except in 1982, a Venera probe lands on
surface and operated normally for 127 minutes and most of the data on Venus due
to the long and intense workings of the Soviets. Meariner 2 which passed more
than twenty thousand miles was the up-front Soviet spacecraft established the
intensity of Venus’s surface circumstances and measured its magnetic field in
1961. Venera 4 was the earliest Soviet probe successfully returned report about
Venusian atmosphere in the evening time period of Venus in the height of 26 kilometers.

It indicated that vast majority of Venusian atmosphere consists of carbon
dioxide and temperature and pressure increased gradually as probe parachuted to
Venus’s surface, until the temperature reached 262oC and 18 Pascal. Venera
8 completed the first soft touchdown during daytime period of Venus in 1872 with
record of 880oF temperature, having achievement of measurement of
wind velocity, light intensity, surface radioactivity and pressure. Three year later,
the next series Venera 9 took images of Venus’s surface and made the first
measurements of the properties of the clouds, the gravitational field and wind
speed. Pioneer Venus 1 was an orbiter with the first radar, ultraviolet, and infrared
observation, its highly elliptical orbit brought it within 120 miles of the
planet’s surface. The relative recent Venus missions include MESSENGER, a NASA
robotic spacecraft which had two Venus flybys. Its second flyby of Venus on June
5 2007 at an altitude of 338 km flew with the largest velocity reduction of the
mission. This encounter to Venus using all equipment provided visible and
near-infrared imaging data, ultraviolet and X-ray spectrometry of the northern atmosphere
of Venus. Another latest mission Venus Express operated by European Space
Agency have several achievements such as first temperature map of southern
hemisphere, evidence of past oceans, presence of lightings, discovery of huge
double atmospheric vortex existed at south pole in Venus etc.

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