REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
According to Kolady and Lesser (2008), they conducted the damage control specifications for production functions that many of the productivity of eggplant such as that of India is endangered because of pesticides. By then, they conduct to a farm level to survey Maharashtra, India. Even if the amount of pesticide use by Open Pollinated Variety (OPV) cultivators is less relative to hybrid growers, the normal use of pesticides is considerably greater than the estimated optimum use of levels. They formerly used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) trial plot data to estimate the profits of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology that can provide in terms of reduces of pesticides application. If the assumption of Genetically Engineered (GE) eggplant lessens the pests by 52%, the field trials of Genetically Engineered (GE) will result in a saving- 6844/acre for hybrid growers and 2784/acre for OPV growers. Base from their study, the outcomes of genetically engineered delivers a good kind of quality to reduce the pesticide use for many farmers in India.
According to K. Baral et al. (2008), In India, million tons of eggplant has produced yearly, next to the production of China. Yields in India have increased essentially due to a bigger use of chemical fertilizers to kill the pest. However, the harvest has ceased to rise since 1998, although it has continued to grow due to the input we used. Also, they were focusing on the increasing loss by the insect pests and the failure of pesticides to conflict with this pest. Plethora is a kind of pest-eating eggplant and the Eggplant Fruit and Shoot the Borer (EFSB), is one of the most destructive insects in all vegetables. The larvae of the insect are annoying within the tender shoots, which mark the blast of that part of the plant. The counted eggplants due to insect larvae bore that affects cannot be released due to the effect of the insect larvae bore. The result will turn into a yield loss. 90% of the yield losses are reported in India (Kalloo, 1988) and related on what happened in Bangladesh Ali et al. (1980). In the lack of effective alternative control measures, farmers trust completely on the application of chemical pesticides to combat Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (EFSB). This practice has caused a remarkable waste of pesticides, which harms most of the effects that include the loss of biodiversity. It resulted in the renaissance of Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (EFSB) because of abusing the chemicals that we used. But by the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), the insect was controlled to suppress the pest populations. The effect of this chemicals have resulted that can damage human health.
According to Meng-Xiao Lu et al. (2014), the behavior of the residue of chlorpyrifos, one of the widely used insecticides worldwide, in six vegetable crops was assessed under greenhouse conditions. Each of the vegetables is subject to a foliar treatment with chlorpyrifos. Organophosphorous insecticide, acaricide, and nematicide were used to control the broad spectrum of leaves and pests of soil borne insects in different food and feed crops. It is ranked as one of the most extensively used insecticides all around the world. In China, the use of some toxic organophosphorus insecticides was banned in 2006; chlorpyrifos is one of the most effective insecticides used today in agriculture. The extensive use of chlorpyrifos leads to a potential risk of residues in different crops. Chlorpyrifos has good environmental concerns due to its extensive use over the past few decades and potentially toxic effects on human health. Therefore, the study of the degradation of chlorpyrifos has become more important in recent years. Even though most of the pesticides are effective in controlling pests in the agricultural industry, improper use of pesticides can lead to public health and food safety concerns environmental contamination.Therefore, the study of indifference in the field of pesticide maintenance in food and pesticide behavior is of particular importance to determine which strategies to use pesticides are good for controlling insect pests while leaving to minimum residues. There are many causes that pesticides are not effective in eggplant or in other vegetables because of our climate change, temperature and the chemical that we use to them.
According to Neha Thanki et al. (2012), vegetables are important part of our diet because of their nutritional value. Eat fruits, nuts, and vegetables significant role in human sustenance, especially the sources of vitamins (C, A, B6, thiamine, niacin, E), minerals. However, there are many factors that limit their productivity, above all Insects and insect diseases, due to higher pest risk there is an average loss of 40% in different crops. Vegetable vegetation in its cultivation helps to make income for the peasants; however it also lowers the environment mostly due to the heavy usage of pesticides, particularly in Asia. In South Asia they are kind of eggplant and it is said to be one of the three largest vegetable species. In this world 50% of the production of eggplant is here in our region. Other pest such as American bollworm and cutworm is always a problem because of the damage that they’ve caused. To combat the problem of insect pests, vegetable growers use a lot of pesticides for better yield and a better quality. Insecticides are frequently applied throughout the growth period and from time to time even in the fruiting stage. Exposure of pesticide is associated with the risk of human health of bone disease, skin disorders, arthritis, cancer and nervous diseases
According to Davalos, E. et al, (2011), eggplant is one of the most important crops in the Philippines, and the leader in vegetable crops in the same area of land and production volume. However, high-pressure pests from eggplant and shoot borer (EFSB) leave farmers relying on high-level spraying of insecticide to keep safe the yield. Surveys show that most eggplant farmers rely mostly on chemical insecticides to control EFSB, because other methods such as manual removal of infected shoots, using methods Biological control such as enhancement of predator insects is extremely difficult and unreliable. But there are some farmers who are preventing insect-eating the crop. Some farmer used chemical pesticides to protect their crops form the insect, twice a week, with certain of them are being sprayed as often as every other day, increasing up to 50-80 sprays during a normal production cycle of 3 months. Insecticides help to kill more insect that can impact into our ecosystem and loss of many insect in biodiversity. Farmers that continued using of insecticides also leads to the formation of resistance to targeted pests, meaning farmers should use heavier doses and more toxic compounds. Here in the Philippines one of the most chemicals to kill insect is Organophosphates. But using this can absorbed by resulting in nausea, diarrhea or skin allergy.
According to Barbar & Ziad (2017) eggplant is one of the vegetable that they have in Syria. This crop is cultivated in this area as a thousand according to the Syrian Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (2014). To control the pest that they have in their country they based on broad-spectrum pesticides in latakian fields, they spray more than one to kill the insect and how the eggplant grows. In the past few years many cases had been stopped about the pesticides because of the financial problem of the industry. Base from the survey from the past 2015 that there was a carried out pesticides eggplant free and in 2016 they discover about the tetranychid Tetranychus urticae Koch and the tarsonemid Polyphagotarsonemus latus is one of the important pest in eggplant because of helping to control the other kind of mite pest.
According to Francisco (2010), eggplant is one of the largest crops all over our country and one of the worst pests is Fruit and Shoot Borer (FSB). It is already reported that all crops has been died or eaten by this kind of pest in Philippines. Many farmers are adding some chemical pesticides to sure that they’ve already killed the insect in their crops. Some farmers are twice a day to spray their crop and every production 50-80 times they spray their production.
Pesticide has a bad effect in our human body and especially in our environment. It can cause a human disease like dizziness, abdominal pain, nausea, and skin and eye problems. But because of chemicals pesticides many insect died and can’t eat our crops anymore.