1) A. A resume is a critical element of the job application process. People create and submit resumes, to provide the fullest information about themselves, their educational and professional background, as well as their job expectations and motivation to accomplish everyday workplace tasks.
More often than not, a well-organized, professionally written resume paves the way to becoming a prospective employee. However, as people change, so do their resumes. It goes without saying that a resume and cover letter written immediately after graduation will differ from those written 10 and 25 years later.
The circumstances of application, changes in personal qualities, the desired job characteristics, increased professionalism, extensive job experience, and other internal and external factors will predetermine the content of each resume. In the meantime, professionalism, concise and comprehensive language, and appropriate structure will remain the main commonalities for all resumes written during one’s lifetime.
Constructing a resume is not an easy task. How resumes are written and presented depends on a variety of circumstances (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 245). A resume is a brief written representation of individual qualifications, job expectations, and achievements (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 245). As a result, preparing and submitting a resume is virtually the same as submitting a sales document, since resumes help individuals to sell their ability to work (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 245).
No two resumes are the same. Resumes submitted by one and the same person immediately after graduation and 10-25 years later will be different, too. These differences are justified by changes in individual experiences and professionalism, changes in job expectations, as well as different circumstances of the job application case.
All resumes will differ by their content: personal qualities, work experiences and special qualifications will differ, depending on the applicant’s age and the specifications of the job, for which he or she is applying. How the resume is structured may differ, too, as the rapid advancement of communication technologies is turning digital resumes into the main instrument of job application.
It is possible that, in 25 years, paper resumes will become obsolete. Nevertheless, professional language will remain the defining feature of successful job application for years ahead, and resumes will have to reflect our commitment to the effective presentation of our qualities, qualifications, and achievements in various professional fields.
B. As digital communications are conquering the global business landscape, job applicants search for new ways to differentiate themselves from the pool of candidates. A thank-you note is an effective way to enhance personal interaction between employers and job applicants (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 279). Thank-you notes produce a positive impression on supervisors, clients, and co-workers (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 279).
Moreover, a thank-you note is an indication of the applicant’s appreciation of the interviewer’s efforts. It is the sign of commitment to the future job, which also shows how the future employee will treat supervisors and clients (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 279). Supervisors and managers recognize that thank-you notes make a real difference in perceptions about job applicants (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 279). All other things being equal, a thank-you note gives prospective students better opportunities to find a good job.
Certainly, a thank-you note must be brief and concise. A source of numerous benefits for job applicants, a thank-you note which is written inappropriately can become a serious impediment to obtaining the desired job. Students must remember that thank-you notes are usually short, start with the expression of recognition and gratefulness, include a brief note regarding the job and the interview, and end on a good-will note (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 279).
A well-written thank-you message is an excellent expression of courtesy and gratitude, which fosters the development of productive relations between the student and the future employer.
2) A. A survey is a complex process of collecting primary information about individual and collective attitudes toward various things and phenomena, be they clothes, shoes, economic crises or nuclear weapons. However, no survey is useful, unless its results are presented in a professionally-written report. Outlining is one of the key stages of the survey process. Outlines are often created by divisions.
The latter are used to divide the report into smaller parts. In case of a survey conducted to determine what styles of shoes are worn throughout the country for various occasions by men of all types, numerous division possibilities are possible. Quantity and factor divisions will serve the basis for creating a well-structured and comprehensive survey report.
Outlining is one of the main stages in writing a survey report. Actually, no survey is possible without outlining the order and sequence of things in the final report.
Outlining makes the process of drafting the survey report easy, efficient, and orderly (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 301). In case of longer reports, outlining is needed to create a relevant table of contents (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 301).
Divisions exemplify one of the most effective methodological ways to create report outlines (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 303). The general bases for these divisions include place, quantity, time, and factor (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 303). Survey reports can be organized by time, like the period of time covered by the survey or the time covering individual actions and decisions that were examined during the survey.
For example, a good logical and well-structured survey will have sales changes in 2010 and 2011 presented in different chapters. In a similar vein, survey reports can be organized around place categories: it is better to present survey results from England separately from those collected in America and Europe.
Quantity divisions are used, whenever it is possible to categorize all survey results by quantifiable characteristics, like the respondents’ level of income or age (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 304). If none of these divisions is suitable or appropriate, factor divisions will make it easier to develop an excellent and readable survey report format.
For the survey conducted to determine what styles of shoes are worn throughout the country for various occasions by men of all types, numerous division possibilities are possible. First, quantity divisions can be used to categorize all respondents by age, the level of income, or the number of shoes they wear and change on a daily basis.
Size can be also used to divide all survey information by quantity. Depending on the purpose, these survey divisions will be different. Second, time divisions are possible if the survey examines how the styles of shoes worn by men of all types change over time.
The survey can be organized around time divisions presenting the styles of shoes worn by men in their adolescence compared to the styles of shoes worn by these men later in life. As long as the survey is conducted among men of all types living throughout the country, the place division can help to differentiate between individual preferences in the styles of shoes based on the respondents’ place of residence.
The survey may examine the styles of shoes worn by men in the southern part of the country compared to those worn by men in its northern territories. The place division can be more specific and explore, for example, the styles of shoes worn by men in California and New Jersey.
Factor divisions can help to outline the survey examining the styles of shoes worn by all types of men throughout the country. Here, occasions will serve the main division by factor. I recommend using place and factor divisions. The use of these divisions is justified by the purpose of the survey.
They do not lead to redundancy. The survey is conducted among men throughout the country, and division by place could help to explore the differences in the styles of shoes worn by men in different territories. The survey explores the styles of shoes worn for various occasions, and factor divisions will enhance the quality of information presented in the survey report.
3) A. Reports are among the most frequently used forms of business communication. Concise and well-structured, reports speed up business communication and make it easier for employees and managers to meet their performance objectives. Reports come out in a variety of types and forms. Depending on the situation, short, progress, email or letter reports can be used to improve the quality of communication in the workplace.
Progress report is one of the most flexible forms of business reports. They are mostly informal, and their structure usually depends on the circumstances of the case. Nevertheless, any progress report must have a body and conclusion. This is the best way to provide the most important information in an easy-to-read format.
An internal progress report is a work document, submitted on as-needed basis, created in a half-formal manner, and written to specify one’s progress toward a particular goal (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 341). Progress reports can be used to update clients on the progress toward a specific task (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 341). For example, customers may ask employees to provide a weekly progress report on how they are working on an IT project.
A progress report usually includes information related to the degree of project completion. However, it may sometimes include a brief discussion of the problems encountered while working on the project (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 341). In most cases, progress reports are informal and do not have any clear structure (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 341).
Simply stated, employees, supervisors and clients choose by themselves how they wish their progress report to look. Some progress reports can be small and absolutely informal, whereas others will need to be official and structured (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 341).
More often than not, all employees need to do is to fill in “blanks on forms devised for the purpose” (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 341). The core message of any progress report is about the progress made while working on the project. A progress report usually implies that those who receive and read it will need to provide their feedback.
That progress reports do not have any set structure does not mean that they are unstructured at all. A good progress report will always have a body and conclusion/ recommendations. Shorter progress report show little need in introductory information (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 326). This is particularly the case of progress reports, whose title explains the purpose (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 326).
The body of any progress report must include brief and easy-to-read information about the progress made during the project and problems/ difficulties encountered. The facts and data must be presented in the direct order, meaning that the body of the report starts with the most important information (e.g., “we are pleased to inform you that the project is 30% completed”).
This information is followed by a brief explanation of the progress, problems encountered, recommendations for the future, and a small conclusion. The use of the direct order is justified by the need to reduce the amount of unnecessary information and let the reader take the most relevant decision.
B. Depending on the situation, different types of reports can be used. Letter reports are the most appropriate when dealing with individuals outside the organization (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 336). For example, a letter report could be used to inform auditors about a financial problem. Simultaneously, auditors could provide organizations with a letter report explaining the problem and what has been done to solve it. Email reports are excellent means of internal communication within organizations.
Email reports are mostly informal and can be used by people who know each other (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 340). At times, email reports can be used to provide higher administration, the board of directors, or supervisors with formal, official, problem-related information (Lesikar, Flatley & Rentz 340).
Whatever the situation, email reports always guarantee cost-effective delivery of information and immediate feedback. Unlike letter and email reports, longer proposals do not merely provide information but persuade other parties to choose a particular course of action. These reports can be used when the problem is obvious and the need to address it is urgent.
Lesikar, Raymond V., Marie E. Flatley & Kathryn Rentz. Business Communication: Making
Connections in a Digital World. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin, 2008. Print.