Post-traumatic a traumatic event the disorder can be

Post-traumatic stress disorder which is a type of anxiety
disorder which is caused by a traumatic event the disorder can be triggered by
either being involved with the event or witnessing it. If patients are given
the correct treatment and support they are then able to recover but it depends
on the quality of their treatment. There are many symptoms for PTSD they are
categorised under the following sections:

Re-experiencing this is when a person re lives
the incident through nightmares and flashbacks. The flashbacks and nightmares
will be very vivid to the person it will feel as if the incident is happening
all over again.

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Avoidance and emotional numbing this is when a
person may begin to isolate themselves because they do not want to talk about
the situation. To distract themselves from thinking about the event they may
keep themselves busy and may choose to shut everyone else out.

Hyper arousal a person experiencing hyper
arousal will find it very hard to relax they will find it hard to sleep,
concentrate they will also be very irritable and will get angry whenever the
event is brought up.

PTSD can also lead to other problems such as depression and
anxiety but in Andy’s situation the disorder has led him to self-harm. Andy may
have chosen to self-harm because he feels guilty about what happened it is not
known whether Andy was the one who was driving but if he was this could make
him feel guilty as if it was his fault his partner died he may look back at the
event and think about what he could have done differently to stop the incident
from taking place. The pain of self-harming may then be a way of him trying to
get rid of the pain of the accident.

Self-harm is when a person injures themselves intentionally
this can be due to many reasons such as the emotional pressure being too much
for the person to handle, low self-esteem, a bereavement or physical, emotional
or sexual abuse and many more. A person who is struggling to cope may find that
self-harming may make them feel more alive, it may take away the pain or guilt,
some people believe that self-harming gives them a sense of control Andy may be
self-harming to make the guilt of the accident to go away event though it
wasn’t his fault and there is nothing he could have done to change the

Some symptoms of self-harm include:

Scars from cuts

Hair loss and bald spots

Wearing long sleeved clothing even in warm
weather conditions

Isolating themselves

Kiera began to take painkillers after her surgery to ease
the pain three years later she is still taking them same medication and
believes that she is addicted. In 2013 there were 807 fatal overdoses on
painkillers it is estimated that there are 32,000 painkiller addicts in the uk
this may be because painkillers such as paracetamol are easily available to the
public in pharmacy’s and supermarkets. Most painkillers are very affordable for
example in Tesco stores there are a variety of different medications available
and many are very cheap and affordable allowing a vast majority of the public
having access to this medication without having a prescription this could be a
reason as to why people like Kiera are becoming addicted to prescription and
non-prescription medications.

Behavioural patterns of someone with painkiller addiction:

Crushing/ breaking pills

Ordering prescription medication over the

Stealing or borrowing medication from family
members or friends


Mood swings

Withdrawal symptoms include:




In some serious cases some people may ever
suffer seizures.

 Cancer stars in our
cells these cells make up our organs and tissues our bodies grow, heal and
repair through the division of our cells. When a cell in our body cannot be
repaired it gets a signal from our brain to stop working. Cancer begins when a
cell becomes abnormal the abnormal cell will keep dividing which will result in
more and more abnormal cells that will eventually create a lump (tumour). The
cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body they travel through the
lymphatic system when the abnormal cells reach another part of the body they
may start forming another tumour. Kiera has been diagnosed with cancer and it
has altered her appearance whilst she will be having chemotherapy her
appearance will change even more for example she will start to lose the hair on
her head as well as the hair on her body this can make her feel very
self-conscious about her image as it is something she has never experienced before
and she won’t know how to deal with this.

Factors affecting human development

Genetic factors can affect physical growth, development,
health and appearance babies are born with 23 pairs of chromosomes that one
from each parents these chromosomes have genes inside them if a child inherits
a defective gene from their parent that cause the parent to have an illness
could then be passed onto the child but it depends on whether the gene is recessive
or dominant. A dominant gene is only passed down by one parent whereas a
recessive gene must be passed down from both parents for the condition to be
passed onto the child.