Personal largely to the level of personal training

Personal exercise habits are particularly vital for body physical and mental functioning. Lack of exercise in addition to bad eating habits basically ruins one’s health and fitness. Motivation, money and time are some of major factors that influence exercises, especially personal training.

In addition, regular physical exercises and dieting contribute to a great percentage in controlling diseases like respiratory or heart diseases. Housh et al. (2003) noted that physical activity is critical to good health, development and fitness for individuals.

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Most of the time in our daily lives is devoted to eating, sleeping and working. In most cases, individuals fail in managing time or funding personal training, which has an adverse effect to their health and fitness.

Motivation is one of the important elements to individuals who usually engage in physical exercise. Motivation through leadership and management factors on individuals contribute largely to the level of personal training or exercises.

Individual management is the act of getting things done while leadership makes these things to done right, at the right place and at the right time. Research indicates that patients and non-patients are advised by their health professionals on the benefits of regular physical exercises.

Some of the benefits as indicated above include healthier heart, weight control and strong body. Based on this health expertise, I would like to do 45 minutes of weight training, five days in a week and 30 minutes of cardiovascular training, 5 days a week. Fundamentally, setting high goals at the start can demotivate my training program.

For an excellent planning program of physical development, setting small goals and then progressing to more advanced excises is more appropriate. Essentially, it would be advisable to start with small goals like walking for ten minutes and then slowly build up to bigger goals like training for 30 minutes in a day for five days in a week.

Planning a program of physical development

As noted above, personal leadership and individual management are critical to personal training and physical activities to an individual. Individuals need to incorporate the influence of personal leadership, ability to keep commitments in order to achieve physical development and personal training programs’ objectives. For this purpose, one needs to be proactive and provide effective personal vision in the program.

Planning for a physical development program thus is vital. Planning for money, time and increasing personal motivation is equally important in the plan. In addition, as indicated by Housh et al. (2003), understanding locomotion movements, non-locomotion skills and object manipulation skills is also critical.

One needs to understand the basic components of physical development fitness. These include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strengths, muscular endurance and the flexibility (Borsdorf, 2011).

Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the capability to provide oxygen and nutrients to body organs and remove excretes for a period of time. Running for over 10 minutes especially long run and swimming are some of the tactics engaged in this exercise parts.

Muscular strengths involve the ability of muscular tissues to exert required force for a particular period of time, usually brief contraction and relaxation. Muscular endurance refers to the capability of muscles to sustain contraction and relaxation on an exercise with a fixed obstacle. Usually, the arm and shoulder muscles fall under this component.

Lastly, flexibility refers to the free movements of joints and muscles when the body is under a motion (Borsdorf, 2011). Based on these components, personal training programs need to incorporate locomotion movements, non-locomotion movements and object manipulation skills.

According to Borsdorf (2011), experts assert that physically fit person is the individual who has fully learnt the skills important to performing various physical activities. He /she is physically fit when the person regularly engages in physical activities, understands the benefits of physical fitness and development as well as the values of personal training and its contribution to health life.

Some of the movement and skills to be included in the physical development programs include; components of aerobics skills, flexibility movements, strong muscle skills, muscular endurance movements and nutrition skills.

Others will include skills related to fitness, which includes coordination, commitment balance, pace management and the reaction skills among others. The primary reason for including all these skills in the physical development program is because they focus on everyday health and fitness. Moreover, they can be lessened or tightened fairly as training progresses.

They also largely contribute to prevention of cardiac diseases and conditions attributed to lack of physical activities. The exercise will always start up by a warm up and end by a cold down activity, which is more of aerobics. The various exercise program activities will focus on the following timings to enhance physical adjustments;

Warm up- 5- 15 minutes of walking jogging, arm circling. This activity will stimulate muscle movements.
Muscular strength exercises- this will focus about 20 minutes for 5 days in a week that will include excises of major muscle groups. This will be done by lifting about 5 to 10 kilograms of weight to increase muscle strength.
Muscular endurance – the session will include 25 minutes for 5 days in a week and will include push-ups, sit-ups and pull-ups to strengthen muscles.
Cardiorespiratory endurance- this will be a 20 minutes aerobic activity that requires oxygen for 20 minutes per week. Rope jumping and swimming is recommended for this session.
Flexibility- includes slowly daily stretching for around 8- 12 minutes.
Cool down- will be done for 5 to 10 minutes and usually, low level exercises such as slow walking combined with stretching will be preferred.

Some of the changes that will be focused on will relate to the change in specific activity to affect each of the program activity such as changing from swimming to rope jumping in order to facilitate aerobic mechanism adaption (Borsdorf, 2011).

Changing from regularity of time, to balancing components in a week facilitates time management. Besides, intensity, frequency and duration of time in an activity will be enhanced to change progression of each excise component.

Part two

Analysis of chronic and infectious diseases


Since ancient times, spectrum of health and related issues such as the environmental hazards and development of diseases have emerged to pose a big challenge to world societies. In this respect, humankind has engaged in developing and innovating diseases control mechanism and drugs to enabled humans lives longer.

Literacy level has largely increased while education systems have improved, making incomes patterns and development opportunities magnified. After all these amplifications to societies, diseases such as chronic and infectious diseases have taken new direction to penetrate into the societies.

In many developing and underdeveloped countries, these diseases have taken on a larger part to deaths. In addition, most developing societies have been engulfed by many new, emerging and reemerging chronic and infectious diseases. In the near past, chronic and infectious diseases have taken new positive direction towards control and prevention.

In this case, these have been noted by societies as epidemic diseases which need thorough research, eradication mechanism and clinical investigation across the world. Most of chronic diseases have been evidenced to be caused by microorganisms known as viruses. The only variation between the infectious diseases and the chronic disease is due to the difference in incubation periods and the epidemiology procedure put forth in control (Gorbach et al 2004).

Again, infectious diseases are acute epidemics where primary transmission is commonly person to person, indirect vector and has a common source. According to Gorbach et al (2004), infectious diseases are diseases of infection origin whose incidence in humans has increased within the recent pasts or threatens to increase in the near future. These diseases have been noted to emerge and increase rapidly in new environment.

Examples of infectious diseases and chronic diseases are; H5N1 influenza, smallpox, HIV/Aids, diphtheria, measles, mumps, tetanus, scrub typhus, cholera, infectious hepatitis, typhoid fever, malaria, leptospirosis, poliomyelitis among other long lasting/ chronic dangerous diseases.

Essentially, chronic and infectious diseases epidemiologists have become aware of the necessity to comprehend geographic population at a high risk to any potential exposure of the causing microorganisms.

Characteristics of chronic illness

Chronic illness can be defined as medical conditions associated and attributed by symptoms that require over three months control and management. The health problem can be injury, common medical conditions or genetically (through heredity or mutation) acquired health problems.

According to Biophysical and Psychosocial Concepts in Nursing Practice (nd), most individuals with chronic illness do believe there are sick when the condition starts to be severe or interfere with the daily activities or experiences making them venerable to hard times. The medical condition involves changing an individual lifestyle and management by control or preventing complications to a person.

Despite the fact that each chronic problem has its own characteristics, there are few specific physiological qualities shared by the illness (Biophysical and Psychosocial Concepts in Nursing Practice, nd).

To manage and control chronic conditions, many problems usually require therapeutic regimens. Unlike the infectious diseases which are acute in nature, chronic conditions have relatively long durations that make them difficult to treat and control.

In most instances many patients with this illness are prevalent to either shock, anger, depression, resentment and other emotional effects and psychological reactions. In addition to this, some conditions cause minor reactions while others causes major health problems inconveniencing daily activities and lifestyle. In summary the chronic illness characteristics can include the following;

The illness occurs in many phases over the lifespan of an individual.
It requires more than management of the medical problems since it’s associated with psychological and sociological reactions.
Usually the illness requires a large part of persistent to therapeutic conditions.
One chronic condition may cause other chronic conditions.
Mostly, management and control of chronically infected person lies to the hands of himself/herself and the infected family members.
As indicated by Biophysical and Psychosocial Concepts in Nursing Practice (nd), living with chronic conditions means living in uncertainty on deaths. In addition, the condition treatment is a collaborative process which usually raises ethical issues for the patient, health experts, and the society.

Relationship between a healthy nutritional program and cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease is among the major causes of death across the globe. According to Gaziano et al, 2009, the disease covers array of disorders which involve the cardiac muscle problems, vascular system, brain, and other important organs in the body system. Some of predominant cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include the ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and the cognitive heart failure (CHF).

The causes for CVD are use of tobacco, obesity, high blood glucose, high blood pressure, and the physical inactivity. Among the major causes of this disease is out of bad nutrition and diet habits. Again, Gaziano et al, 2009 indicates most of the prevalent risks are attributed to lifestyle and behavior patterns which further translate to bad nutrition programs. Researches provide that people with heart diseases are less health than individuals without heart diseases.

A healthy lifestyle and behavior can reduce the risk to cardiovascular diseases by over 80 percent. Individuals who are not overweight, dot not consume tobacco, engage into personal physical training, consume less fats and do not drink too much are less risky to cardiovascular diseases infection (Gaziano et al., 2009). In this respect, there is a relationship between health nutrition programs and the cardiovascular diseases.

Effects of chronic and infectious diseases on the immune systems

New chronic and infectious diseases have emerged in the recent past. Immune system mechanism usually provides resistance among diseases causing microorganism.

There is a natural interaction between human bodies and the all good or bad microorganisms. Disease causing microorganisms dominate the environments in which human beings operate in. Human immune systems has developed and evolved to accommodate microorganism dominated environments.

Poor immune system caused by poor nutrition programs and physical training activities makes human bodies prevalent to microbes causing diseases. Infectious and chronic diseases diminish the strength and performance of immune systems to react to microbes. Essentially, acute infectious and chronic diseases affect the immune system.

Part three

Nutrition and Physical Fitness Worksheet

How does a healthy lifestyle affect self-image and self-esteem?

Health in all animals is basically a physical condition and transforming health requires a physical activity or exercise. Scholars have indicated, in researches that, health living or health condition is not a matter of mind but a condition of individual’s physical body. In this essence, healthy lifestyle due to physical activities and exercises supplemented by diet nutrition affect self-image and self-esteem. Interestingly, self-image and self-esteem controls actions and thus one can change his/her self-image or self-esteem to achieve objectives of healthy lifestyles.

How do you define good nutrition?

The body is made up of different types of cells that perform different function. Therefore, a good nutrition is defined as body with six components, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, fats, fiber and vitamin. Protein provides essential and nonessential amino acids. Fats provide energy while vitamin and the minerals provide the essential minerals and specific vitamin which help in fighting diseases. Carbohydrates are essential for body energy.

What does it mean to eat a balanced diet?

The body needs all the diet but in there right proportion for its normal functioning. A balanced diet contains all types of food nutrition in there right proportion. A diet that has proteins, carbohydrates, fats minerals, fiber and minerals is termed as a balanced diet. Once an individual takes the right amount then the body is able to receive all the important nutrients in its right content.

What are three of the main dangers associated with dieting?

Mostly unbalanced diet intake brings about some nutrition disorders such as diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases among others. The development of eating disorder involves the deficiency of more nutrients in the body than the amount the body ingest. It is usually brought about by starvation where calories are available for the normal functioning of body process resulting to nutrition symptoms. Nutritional deficiency is also another danger which is brought by eating too little, which leads to nutritional deficiency and nutrition diseases or disorders are exhibited.

What are the top things to consider when creating a safe and effective exercise program?

A good objective or a goal of the exercise programs helps the individual to analyze what is being worked for in the exercise program. The goals bring about the planning activity to be achieved in long run. A possible solution of how to gain the goal is also important. The amount of capabilities to cater for the possible solutions that are set is an important aspect, and the amount of time that is needed for the exercise program. The structure should be consistency and reliable by the user.

What are options for exercise other than belonging to a gym?

Getting outdoor is an important option. This includes the specific exercise that an individual gets in touch outside gym. For instance physical jogging provides stress relief. There are solo acts such as exercising videos which direct on the exercising process. Most of them don’t require the equipment in the gym but simple free weights.

Support groups are also important and this includes interaction of people for motivation, participation in aerobics and relevant nutrition learning programs can be included in this section. Joining sporting club for instance swimming and playing ball games are good examples of outside gym exercises. Exercises such as sit-ups and push-ups can be done anywhere.

What is the best way to lose weight? Be sure to explain your answer and provide at least one source to support your answer.

Physical training is the best way to lose weight. This is because exercises are distinct during the training together with appropriate eating habit. Human body should not be exposed to starvation or inappropriate diets. For instance, eating small amount of balanced diet and exercises increases the metabolic movement and mechanisms which reduces body fats and further regulate blood movement. It can reduce 157 pounds to 130 in just one to two weeks (Powers & Dodd, 2009).

How does exercise influence body weight?

Physical exercises influence body weight loss. Usually, regular and persistent physical exercises make body to burn more calories than when there are no exercises. It is one factor that influence and promote metabolic mechanism leading to fats metabolism thus reducing or lowering body weight.

Ideally, physical exercises promote aerobic activities within the body that essentially lead to breaking of fats. Human body requires little or minimum calories to make it function and additional calories will not add up anything. This is translated to storable fats that increase human body. Exercises increases excess fats burn and excretion and thus contribute to weight loss.

What are myths associated with diet and exercise? Be sure to explain why each myth is not true.

Fewer carbohydrates translate to lower weight and vice versa. Calories taken in are source of energy and taking more calories than metabolized will end up gaining weight. Calories does not only comes from carbohydrates thus the myth is not true (Snead, 2007).
When one has a personal training program there is no need of diet or nutrition conscious. This is not true because nutrition and exercises need to go hand in hand for a healthy lifestyle (Snead, 2007).
When one is not overweight does not have to do exercises and vice versa (Snead, 2007). This myth does not hold because one may be slim but has inside fats that need to be burnt to control heart diseases.
Tough exercises go hand in hand with an objective to lose weight. This cannot be true since physical exercises does not mean hard exercise, light exercise like walking are vital in shedding excretes and balancing the required calories and the excess calories (Snead, 2007).
Some foods can assist in burning fats or carbohydrates such as vegetables (Snead, 2007). Never, no food can burn weight unless together with exercises.

How does the role of food choice and eating relate to the Six Dimensions of Wellness?

Fitness or good health is the achievement of balanced growth following certain dimensions of wellness. Most important, people believe and assume wellness or fitness in terms of engaging to physical activities such as outdoor sports, gyms and the like.

Generally, wellness to individuals is much contributed to environment, occupation, emotions, and physical, social, intellectual and spirituals factors. Individual choice of food and eating practices are usually attributed by the wellness dimensional factors. Actually, each of the dimension overlap to one another and the eating habits play a significant role to their overlapping.

How does today’s society affect our nutritional habits?

Today’s society is characterized by economic expansion and new methods of doing business especially marketing. In actual fact, economic expansion has resulted to increased disposable income, employment rates has increased and substitution effects which have largely affected the eating habits. Consumer marketing based on physiological marketing segmentation has also impacted or resulted to changes in the eating habits. Recent evidences shows that current society is characterized by outmoded myths on nutrition which has also impacted negatively on the nutrition habits.

How does the role of activity and fitness relate to the Six Dimensions of Wellness?

Daily activity and personal fitness training are some of the common exercises an individual under through daily life. As indicated above the seven dimensions of wellness are closely related to the daily activities of an individual. Each of the dimensions contributes to the fitness of an individual and thus adding up to fitness. In addition, fitness and wellness are not different in the sense that when one is fit based on the seven dimensions means wellness of an individual.

What is the relationship between nutrition and exercise?

According to Borsdorf (2011), it is not well possible for health experts to provide a prescription on how exercise and nutrition should be balanced. Conversely, exercise should incorporate good nutrition diet if it is not barred by health problems. Usually, there is no recommendation for weight loss formula based on nutrition intake. Most professionals in health care provide benefit of exercises to promote weight loss or wellness and fitness which must be supplemented by fair nutrition program (Powers & Dodd, 2009).

What are the top five components of an effective fitness program, and what role does each component play in individual fitness?

Top five components of effective fitness programs include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strengths, muscular endurance and the flexibility. Cardiorespiratory endurance refers to the capability to offer oxygen and calories to body organs and enable body to remove waste accordingly.

Muscular strength is the capability of muscular tissues to contract and relax exerting required energy for a certain period of time. Muscular endurance is manner in which muscles sustain contraction and relaxation on bodybuilding exercise while flexibility is the free movements of muscles and joints when the body is in a motion.

How has the historical development of exercise science influenced physical fitness in today’s society?

Since the ancient times, human kind had pursuit to fitness or wellness. In fact, it was accomplished through balanced eating and exercises practices.

That is, through hunting and gathering activities. Development of physical sciences is influenced by economic, political and social factors. Historical development of physical sciences has transformed the exercise and this is symbolized by the adaption of new lifestyles and increasing daily activities which require fitness.

Development of physical exercise sciences through creation of different sports and training practices has evolved and influenced consciousness towards fitness and wellness. Development of sportsmanship, changing to urbanization and recreation pursuit has also influenced changes to awareness of physical fitness and wellness.

How do the social aspects of today’s society affect/influence physical fitness? Be sure to provide at least two examples (hint: individual differences, social behavior, etc.).

Failure to exercise together with inappropriate nutrition and eating habits can lead to bad health and fitness. Social aspects in today’s society such as income class, family status, motivation level, money, occupation and time are some of major factors that influence dieting and exercises especially personal training.

Social behaviors and individual differences in a social spectrum always influence the lifestyle of individuals. Fundamentally, social cultural environment of an individual influence much on motivation, persistence and personal leadership towards fitness and nutrition intake.


Biophysical and Psychosocial Concepts in Nursing Practice. (nd). Chronic illness. Retrieved on July 15, 2011from

Borsdorf, L. (2011). Physical Best Activity Guide: Elementary Level. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Gaziano, T., Srinath, R., Fred, P., Sue, R. & Vivek, C. (2009). Cardiovascular Disease. Retrieved on July 15, 2011 from

Gorbach S. l., Bartlett, J. G., & Blacklow, N. R. (2004). Infectious diseases: 3rd Ed. Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Powers, S.K., & Dodd, S.L. (2009). Total fitness & wellness. 5th Ed. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings.

Snead, H. W. (2007). The Truths and Myths of Weight Loss: The Scientific Evidence. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse.