p.p1 type of ozone is the tropospheric

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The ozone layer is a layer of gas called trioxygen (O3).The ozone layer is found in two parts of the atmosphere and takes about 21 percent of the whole atmosphere. Ozone is one of the biggest three global problems as well as greenhouse gas effect and acid rain. There are two types of ozone which are the stratospheric ozone (ozone in the stratosphere) and the tropospheric ozone (ozone in the troposphere). The first type of the ozone is the stratospheric ozone which is found in the stratosphere (second layer of the atmosphere) with a concentration of 90 percent. The first part of the stratosphere is about 33,000 feet in height. On the other hand, the ozone layer sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to 30 kilometers) above the surface of our planet.The ozone in the stratosphere is formed by a natural process.Through this process, a chemical reaction happens which involves solar ultraviolet radiation from the sunlight and oxygen molecules. First, the UV rays (comes from the solar radiation emitted by the sun) hits the oxygen molecule separating it into two separate oxygen atoms. Second, the oxygen atom separated from step 1 undergoes a binding collision and binds with an O2 molecule forming an O3 molecule. As more O3 are created they form the ozone layer. The second type of ozone is the tropospheric ozone which is found in the troposphere (first layer of the atmosphere) with a concentration 0.9 with other constituents.The majority of the ozone in the troposphere is formed by an artificial process in which chemical reaction is present. Furthermore, this chemical reaction occurs when CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides) and VOCs (volatile organic compounds( such as xylene)) react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight. There is a big difference between the effect of the stratospheric ozone and the tropospheric ozone. The stratospheric ozone is helpful for us as it protects us from ultraviolet radiation that the sun emits which can cause major problems.  On the other hand the tropospheric ozone is harmful to us because it damages many common things including human health and vegetation. The problem is that human interference with nature by producing gases which cause the ozone destruction. All the substances that cause the ozone destruction are called ODS which means ozone destruction substances. The process of ozone destruction is also called ozone depletion. There are many ozone destruction substances but the main ones are CFCs gases, HFCs gases, HCFCs gases and compounds that release bromine into the stratosphere. First, CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) is a compound that is made up of carbon atoms, chlorine atoms, and fluorine atoms. It has no natural source as it is not produced by nature but the main anthropogenic sources of CFC gases are refrigerators, sprays, and air-conditioners. When CFC gases are realized in our atmosphere it rises to the top of the stratosphere and when it gets hit or when it absorbs UV radiation. When they are exposed to UV radiation the CFC molecule breaks down releasing chlorine in the stratosphere. This chlorine atom acts as a catalyst for the decomposition of the ozone layer. Those chlorine atoms react with Ozone molecules and turn them into oxygen molecules. When the chlorine atom is free it detaches an oxygen atom from an ozone molecule. After that, this oxygen atom attaches to another oxygen atom that is left alone in the stratosphere and forms an oxygen molecule or O2  molecule. Then this Chlorine atom is free, so it starts all the process again and this damages a large portion of the ozone layer.Second, HFCs (hydrofluorocarbon) is a compound made up of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon. The hydrofluorocarbon gases contribute to ozone depletion by a small portion compared to the CFC gases.  There is no natural cause to the production of HFC gases as it is a man-made greenhouse gas. The main anthropogenic causes of the HFC gases are air-conditioners, refrigeration, and aerosols. HFC gases are expected to contribute mostly to the global warming(ozone depletion) in 2050 because it was found that those gases are indirectly contributing to ozone destruction. HFC gases production cause the increase of the warming of the stratosphere which speeds up the chemical reactions that destroy ozone molecules. Furthermore, the HFC gases decrease ozone levels making the ozone drops or go down in the troposphere as they are accelerating the upward movement of ozone-poor air. Third, HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) is a compound that is made up of hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. There is no natural cause to the production of HCFC gases as it is also a man-made greenhouse gas. The main anthropogenic causes of the HCFC gases are air-conditioners, refrigeration, and aerosols. The HCFC gases form a similar or almost the same process like the CFC gases in destroying the ozone. They seem to cause 98% less ozone depilation than CFCs. Fourth, compounds that release bromine into the stratosphere. When those compounds go to the stratosphere they rise up and then get hit by UV radiation which breaks them down causing the bromine to escape to the stratosphere. Bromine acts like chlorine and does use the same process to destroy the ozone layer. As human population is growing very fast, their demand for refrigerators, sprays, and air-conditioners grows. Therefore, more and more refrigerators, spray and air-conditioners are produced and used. Those are the main anthropogenic sources of the main gases that destroy or cause the depletion of the ozone. When the production of them is increased, the amount of ozone depilation is increasing also. More and depilation of the ozone caused now what is known as the ozone hole. The ozone hole is a region in which the ozone layer is so thin. The ozone layer protects us from UV rays that come from the sun as it absorbs it. When the ozone layer thinners and or gets destroyed, it allows more UV to escape to the earth. When more UV radiation escapes to the earth, they either get absorbed by the land or the ocean. This can cause an increase in the global temperature which is the main culprit of ozone depilation. The increase in temperature causes many problems such as ice melting and especially in the poles. This problem cause sea level rise which can cause flooding and destruction in many places in the world. It also releases the stored greenhouse gases in the frozen ice into the atmosphere which increases the greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, as more ice is melting, less sun’s radiation is reflected by the ice and that means that more is absorbed by the land which also causes increase in the global temperature. In addition, when ice melts, it will causes the loss of the population of species that depend on that ice like polar bears. The increase in the global temperature causes changes in the precipitation patterns, severe weather, Ecosystems and Seasons. In changes of severe weather, their is an increase of some severe weather events like hurricane and heat waves. Hurricane and heat weather both our destruction, so as they increase the destruction of plants, animals, humans, and land is increasing. As for the changes in the precipitation patterns, their is an increase in the total annual precipitation in some places. Also, their is an increase in the heavy precipitation events like rainstorms. Furthermore, in the northern hemisphere, their is an increase of the precipitation falling down as rain rather than snow. Many regions are experiencing longer growing seasons as a result of the cold days coming later in the year and finishing in the early spring, The temperature is a great factor in determining what animals or plants can live in a certain place. As they increase, they change the types of the plants and animals living in a certain area. The increase of temperature leads to the immigration of animals to the poles and the increase of undesirable insects and plants moving into new region. The loss of a certain animal or plant because they have migrated to the north can cause the destruction of the whole ecosystem the animals that feed on the immigrated organism does not have anything else to feed on. The introduction of new species may cause the destruction of another species. The loss of biodiversity mainly causes an increase in the production of carbon dioxide as it destroys plant carbon sinks. Sometimes it can lead to the extinction of a specific type of animal or plant due to it not finding them a place where it can survive. It keeps on continuing as all the climate change is a domino effect or a feedback loop. As for the humans, more UV rays would cause more ageing skin, damaging our immune system, sunburns, skin cancer, damaging our eyes and malignant melanoma development. Also, a small amount of it can cause good things like producing vitamin d which benefits our body. As for the plants, more UV radiation emitted from the sun is harmful to plants in many ways. Plants cannot avoid any extra increase in the levels of ultraviolet radiation which they are using for photosynthesis(the process in which plants makes their own food). It damages the proteins, DNA, membranes and lipids inside of a plants. Those are just some of problems caused by the ozone depletion and the increase in the ultraviolet radiation in the stratospheric ozone. Their are differences between the problems caused by the depilation of the ozone layer in the stratosphere and the ozone formation in the troposphere.  As for the plants,  many farmers do not know that tropospheric ozone is affecting the growth of the plants and that it is reducing their yields. Tropospheric ozone enters the plant’s leaves through the stomata which is where the gas exchange happen like any other atmospheric gases do in normal gas exchange process. When it enters the plant, it dissolves in the water inside the plant and make reactions with some other chemicals which leads or causes a variety of problems. The ozone in the troposphere acts as a greenhouse gas which like any other greenhouse gas causes greenhouse effect (trapping thermal energy from bouncing back to space). As for the humans, it causes a variety of health problems like coughing, throat irritation, chest pain and congestion. It can also cause  emphysema, and asthma. Those are just some effects of the tropospheric ozone among millions of others.  Their are many measurements and diagnosis that is used to identify the factors in your research. First, you can measure the amount of UV radiation by a device called the spectrometer which shows an increase in the amount of UV radiation which is a great proof of ozone depilation. Second, when you measure the temperature and it shows you that over the last 100 years the temperature has increased by 2.0°C (According to the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia). This shows that their is an increase of the sun’s radiation because temperature increase when more sun’s radiation is absorbed. The increase in the sun’s radiation(UV radiation) is another solid proof of ozone depilation. Third, measuring the acidity of the air. When you measure the acidity of the air, it shows that it has decreased and that is because the production of greenhouse gases like CO2, NO2  and acid oxides, in general, has increased. Although those gasses is are a very small factor in the ozone depletion but it also add up to it. Finally, scientist uses ships to fly in the air and get samples from the atmosphere so they can measure the acidity of the atmosphere. They have to get samples from different sections/parts in the same place to make sure of their measurements.Finally, scientist fly with ships to the highest point where a ship can fly and then they send a small rocket which does not cause any destruction, it just gathers samples of the ozone. This rocket comes down with a small parachute and then they analyse the data for information like determining percentages of gasses like CFCs in the ozone layer. The increase of CFC gasses that is clearly shown in the analyses of the data recovered is another proof of ozone depilation. Also this small rocket contains a chip that can determine that amount of UV radiation(another method for measuring UV radiation). Their are many things you could do to prevent ozone depletion. First, I will stop getting the sprays that contain CFC gasses. Second, I would try to use clean energy resource as my energy source because the main sources that cause ozone depletion are all results of burning fossil fuels. Third, I will not buy any home appliance that are producing CFC, HFC or HCFC gasses. Finally, I would also not buy any cleaning solvents that contains CFC, HFC or HCFC gasses. All the problems that are happening to the climate that causes climate change happened because of human interference with nature and it’s cycles. Humans are supposed to stop producing greenhouse gases and all harmful gases. Their are tons of ways to do that. First, humans should start relying on clean energy sources instead of fossil fuels. This would help limit producing greenhouse gasses because clean energy sources like wind power, geothermal energy, solar power, nuclear power, and hydroelectricity do not produce any greenhouse gases when burned. Second, we need to stop deforestation and starting planting trees. That would help limit the production of greenhouse gasses as trees acts as a carbon sink. Due to that, the increase of trees will decrease carbon dioxide which is one of the biggest greenhouse gases on earth. Third, to use hybrid and electric cars instead of normal cars. That would help limit or reduce greenhouse gases because they produce less CO2 which is one of the biggest greenhouse gases produced by humans. Fourth, let companies get less efficient equipment to consume less energy. That would help limit the production of greenhouse gases because you would use less electricity. Fifth, drive less by start cycling and walking to places near you instead of always using the cars. This would not only limit the production of greenhouse gases and climate change but it will also improve your health and save you money. Sixth, start recycling and by doing so you are using less material for example when you recycle paper and use this paper to make matches, this is better because you did not need to cut down another tree to do these matches. Seventh, use paper efficiently by using the same paper to jot all the notes of the day instead of using different sheets of paper. Finally, we should use water more efficiently especially hot water by for example closing the water while we are brushing our teeth. We should do that because heating the water produces emission of the greenhouse so when we reduce it, we are also reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases that are produced by it. I think that we as a human race are not able to change our ways because the people that are ruling the world thinks differently. Those leaders guide us into what is wrong and what will destroy and have partially destroyed our planet. Those leaders think that life is only about money and collecting it and the problem is that they value some papers more than the nature they live in and their lives. That is why if you try to help improve and change our ways, they are not going to allow you to do it because they do not want their businesses losing money not even for the people’s life or their’s. They will either pay you to stop or make the government stop you etc. Sometimes if you still do not agree with them, they may even kill you. What we need to do as a human race is to stand together against those leaders and tell them that they are wrong and that they need to stop. It is never to late but by know it is late to stop but we need to at least work together to reduced it. This is not a debatable topic; it’s my and your life getting destroyed by the thoughts of stupid leader and by us not taking an action. Never say or think that you would not do male a difference because this all can start by you. 

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