OVERVIEW “this year of 2045, constitute the year


As many
scholars, intellectuals and journalists claimed “this year of 2045, constitute the year of change and new step with
large-scale has begun”. The world has experienced since the last 25 years a
significant impact on the competitivity, occasionally cooperative and
relationship between the states. The development of the technology has reached
its highest level leading therefore to a phenomenal economic, political and
social success to some countries while it has depressed some others. What is more,
it is a time that the African continent has became a new role model that
representing a new challenge in the global system. Djibouti, an eastern African
country member of this continent continues to play a leading role thanks to its
complex geographical situation but also being located to a region that is home
to international terrorism (namely the growing radical’s groups from Yemen, and

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purpose of this paper is to examine the numerous challenges, threats and
opportunities a changing environment presents to the government of Djibouti. It
will attempt also to suggest the different policies suitable based on the
growing global influence, the vulnerabilities that existing and also the
economic growth. In order to understand what is really going on, we should have
to explain how the situation is affecting the values and the survival of the
country, and its population.


1.      SET OF

In an
area of globalization, security is a keystone of development and improvement to
any states. Moreover, the world is undergoing toward rapid transformation year
after year which are as deep as constant. For the government of Djibouti
ensuring a strategy that defines a global and all-embracing frame of reference
in security matters, a strategy that envisages the unique characteristics of
the risks and threats or a strategy that orients State’s action
towards responding to current challenges by using the available resources
flexibly and efficiently are fundamental for their survival. In the same time,
the security of the world is characterized by unprecedent challenges, risks and
threats resulting from many interrelated factors which have a greater level of
complexity. Furthermore, the continent has been the focus of the international
community not only because of its spectacular development that attract the old
superpowers such as the United States and the Europeans as well as the emerging
states namely China but also the African continent imposed itself as the new “Eldorado”. This situation has a
national, regional and international repercussions for the government of
Djibouti as well as the others nations part of the continent. By taking into
account all this variation, the regime must be based on a comprehensive and
integrated approach that allow for active participation and be implemented in
the spirit of solidarity. More importantly, to prevent or even responds to any
type of threats but also to ensure the persistence of the state, it is vital to
build up a security policy that encompasses all of the measures at national,
regional and international level. The most central features of this approach

A fundamental and far reaching
comprehension of the significance of security as an assurance of nationals’
prosperity and the strength of the State itself is along these lines basic.

Actively working in the representation or
the participation of the Djibouti government in securing the plethora issues of
the region as well as creating a peaceful international arena.

providing the sufficient effort to secure all this significant value, the state
will be secure against any risks but will need a strong and determined society.


the past few years, the world has not just witnessed new discoveries and
inventions in science and technology that has shaped the way in which
globalization used to influence but it has showed that this was more likely the
leading factor. In addition, the internet, the artificial intelligence and
genetic engineering transformed the international environment. Thus, the
evolution of the human being into another level of existence has become more
realistic vision. Indeed, the system in which the world was made for is getting
complex, difficult with tremendous consequences such as ecological catastrophes,
social change, economic transformation but also increasing the fear that this
technology will go into the hand of the wrong people (namely the terrorists’
groups). As Gerald Doucet, World Energy Council has clarified that this
situation confused the question of “who is maintaining a leading position in
global competition”. This rapid progress is only reinforcing the countries who
have been active in the globalized context. On the one hand, the United States
with its traditional position and the role in decision making, planning has
evolved into new phase. With the subsequent change of the world that has
affecting the economy, politic and social sphere, they are still able to
maintain their position of a principal actor who can achieve numerous things. Moreover,
the concern of the American administration toward Africa is part of the
widening of their policy in this area of large-scale innovation. Partnering
with the states of this continent will allow a diversified export strategy that
has been made since ages but also to contribute the weakness of China
investments, another actor that is holding a great influence in the market of
the continent, and that could threaten the survival of the U.S. On the other
hand, China has been in the centre of attention since their rise over the past
years. Thanks to their economic growth, and their military capacity they are
imposing their will on the world, and pose a fear to the United States. It is
fundamental to renew its capacities and adapt it to the current situation of
the world by developing their technology skills and allowing their policymakers
to ensure the dynamic spot in the international realm. The rise of China in
Africa has started since three decades and has displaced Africa’s traditional
partners, like the U.S and the European. As a result, the exports of China have
increased considerably and making the continent a major source of investments
and trade activities. In fact, the African continent turned not only to a place
of development, innovation in different categories explicitly in the economy
and the politics fascinating the world but it has also brought new challenges
that are consequential of the foreign interference. Hence, by making the
environment more vulnerable to multiple issues. Therefore, the administration
of Djibouti is conscious about the alarming circumstances that the universal is
going through. The objectives for implementing a security policy responding to
the environment are to make Djibouti the safest country with the highest quality
of life, enable the citizen to live in security and freedom but also to
effectively take a vibrant part in national as well as regional level. In order
for the state to protect the territorial integrity, guarantee the well-being of
its citizen and ensure the continuity of the nation, it has to define a
strategy that enhance the anticipation, protection and response capabilities in
an increasingly complex environment like today. With all these problems,
national events or regional can have a global repercussion and represent a risk
of the individual security. Located in the East of Africa, a region which lies
at the mouth of the Red Sea that has made the country an ideal transhipment hub
for the international trade and offered long-term potential growth. The government
have to deal with numbers issues to reach its goal. At the national level, the
major concern must be based on the safeguarding of the stability within the
country, and to formulate a smooth, well-prepared agenda that has to engage and
empower the Youth and their families in becoming current and future
generations. Thus, this National security is the critical next step in facing
that challenge. At the regional and international level, the situation is
getting more intricate. The strategic position in which the country is located
has created a feeling or a longing vis a vis of their neighbours in the region
that sometimes is expressed in the form of diplomatic crisis (the case of
MAERSK during the spring 2023 has opposed the government of Djibouti to
Eretria). The intrusion of some powers such as the U.S. to limit the Chinese
impact in the region, but also to conduct certain actions against the
radicalism of groups in Yemen and Somalia under their counter-terrorism
program. Lastly, advancing all sectors of the country is part of the purpose of
this National security. Whether in the economy, ecology or social field, the
government is committed to strengthen their capacity and move it forward.
Cyber-security and military development require to improve the position of
Djibouti in the international environment by operating, collaborating with the
whole region but also the international powers such as U.S., China and the
United Nations.


together in the worldwide condition nearby risks and threats are other
multiplier factors which can create new challenges or increase and compound
their impacts. Destitution, disparity, ideological radicalism, statistic
awkwardness, environmental change what’s more, broad abuse of new innovation
are some of these components. It is necessary to understand these situation can
trigger instability and intensify risks that have serious consequences not only
to the interest of the government of Djibouti but also can create a vulnerable
region. Thus, the threats that can undermine the existence of the
administration are sort into categories:

Ø  The anger of the youth and the
antagonism between the tribes

on the Bab-el Mandeb Strait, this tiny African nation has benefited from its
location to develop its capacity and transform into an important attraction for
the biggest powers of the world. However, for the majority of the Youth, the
situation is not fair for everyone because the resources available is
benefiting the minority who are leading the country. Hence, the government must
improve in order to avoid a revolution or a bloody situation. Even more, the
continent is characterized by an significant growth of young people that
constituted their workforce. In others words, not empowering them, is synonym
of overthrown and fail like what happen three decades ago in most of the states
in the continent (the Arab Spring). It is also a vacuum that can serve the
interest of the enemies. Further, the disputes among the existing ethnics
groups within the borders of the states are crucial and can lead to a greater
risks. The question of tribes is one the worst situation that can be witnessed
because it contributes to a hatred feeling, and civil wars when it widen. 

Ø  From Regional to international issues:
large-scale risks

geographical position of Djibouti, its cultural and political ties have shaped
the role of the nation in the global environment. Both internal and external
security have been reinforced by the help of China and also the income of their
strong and well-appointed ports with international standards. As a consequence,
it contributes largely to its economy, and allow them to diversify their alliances
with the international powers. However, this situation has also deepened the
context of the region, home to one the world’s busiest shipping routes. For instance,
the United States, long-time the leading partner of the region has seen their importance
weakening smoothly. They have started to establish a connection with other
nations of the region in order to compete China, and as result put in jeopardy
the ports of the country which is the lifeblood of its economy. A fierce
competition between this powers create a great risk for the survival of the nation.
Eventually, economy and politics are the first that will experience this
indirect antagonism. The factors destabilising or affecting are many and vert heterogenous.
Globalization has transformed the occasions, particularly in the monetary and
budgetary circle, inferable from the high level of reliance, requiring States
and global associations and bodies to react quickly to the progressions that
happen. From now, the regime has to deal with the  economic interdependence and the variety of
economic agents that can represent a risks. More importantly, in a region that
is considered to be instable, it is not unhabitual to witness the presence of
some radicalistic groups in Somalia (Al-Shabab) and the north of the country,
Al Qaeda in Yemen. Terrorism, is therefore is an immediate risk to the life and
security of the population, it expects to undermine our majority rule
establishments and risks our imperative and key interests, foundations, supplies
and basic administrations. Averting, blocking and vanquishing this treat ,
whatever its starting point, is a need point of the nation. Above all, there a
others risks to avoid such as the Cyberthreats, which is a priority of the
government. Cyberattacks, regardless of whether as cyberterrorism,
cybercrimes/cyberoffences, cyberespionage or hacktivism, have turned into a effective
instrument for assaulting people and open and private organizations. Factors,
for example, their ease and insignificant dangers to the aggressor what’s more,
their simple utilize, adequacy and openness clarify why the wonder is
spreading. As a final point, energy vulnerability, is also an important case
that should have to be protected. In a period of rapid growth and industrialization,
the demand in energy reach a considerable rise that is affecting the less industrialized
state such as Djibouti, thus they have to implement a successful way of
managing this need.


have to keep in mind that all the tasks faced by the government of Djibouti possess
an regional as well as international dimension. The aim of having a modernized
techniques adapted to this environment is crucial because it will contribute to
the stability and security of problematic issues which are relevant to the
country. Determining responses capabilities based on the risks and threats that
are harming the survival of the country. Policies that enable to the entire
nation progress together and be recognized and valued internally as well
externally is fundamental.

Youth Preparedness Education and Advancing
a national unity:

priority of the government is empowering them through understanding of risks
and knowing protective actions. They are the future of tomorrow, and making
them a positive influencers is a wok that an active participation of all the
members of the society including the families. The purpose of the nation is
visible and clear, they have to provide important programs, activities or even create
associations to facilitate the integration of all in the community. Building
universities, giving them scholarships and making easier the insertion of this
youth into the market. In this way, they are more educated, conscious about the
situation and can help the nation to move forward. By doing, the regime also
want to create a strong cohesion inside the nation whereby merit is the only
way to differentiate people but not upon race, or tribes. Is what we called ” the pacification of the society” .

Combating Terrorism

counterbalance the threat of terrorism and reduce society’s vulnerability to
its attacks, the response of the government has to be based into collaboration
with the region powers (namely Ethiopia, Yemen and Somalia…etc) but also with
the international powers. Indeed, the response will be organised as following:

Anticipation: acting against fear based
oppression at its source. Move will be made at source inside the nation in request
to keep the enrolment of new fear based oppressors through the procedures of
radicalisation, guaranteeing the organized activity of the considerable number
of Experts for this reason. Remotely, Djibouti  will participate in creating an arrangement
that is concurred and composed with the equitable nations – ideally however
normal activity inside the continent and will collaborate in battling
radicalisation at source. In the area of the internet, endeavours will be made
to guarantee that the Web isn’t utilized by fear based oppression as a methods
for radicalisation, engendering and accomplishment of its points.

 Assurance: diminishing our powerlessness.
Around there endeavours will be gone for reducing open doors for conferring
assaults by enhancing and expanding our national abilities both inside our own
particular nation (by reinforcing the insurance of delicate targets and
enhancing fringe control), remotely (where Djibouti’s interests are conveyed)
and in virtual space (by reinforcing national data systems what’s more,

 Interest: tending to fear based oppressor
action. Abilities for exploring and assembling insight on fear mongers what’s
more, their activities will be advanced and enhanced by adjusting the essential
national coordination, heading and supervision instruments with a specific end
goal to guarantee the best conceivable viability of the establishments and open
forces. Measures will be embraced to keep the arranging of demonstrations of
fear based oppression, their financing and access to the materials expected to
confer assaults.

will also work on others issues such as improving the economy and financial field.
To do that the country is working on building strong relationship with its
partners in the region as well as the international (China as a leading actor).
The government must also play the card of the genius in order ta avoid any clash  between the 2 superpowers. In the case of the
economy and energy vulnerabilities, it has integrated many regional and global
organizations like the IGAD (intergovernmental agency for the Development), the
 Arab league but also the African Union
which it is playing a role in the crisis management. In an era of speed progress,
energy is also crucial. Therefore, the link with the Arab nations is monumental
to ensure a continuity of energy suppliers. China, has also providing the same
energy resources. Even more, the security in the Cyberspace constitute one the
major concern of these policies. Being a period that information and technology
has evolved, securing networks and systems by strengthening our cyberattack
prevention, detection and response capabilities. Under the resolution 455 of
the government, to get closer with the states advanced in this technology has
an integral part of their strategy.  They
are promoting cybersecurity training for professionals and boosts Djibouti
interest in this field. Most of the equipment are coming from the world shipped
directly to the port. Stepping up this collaboration is central to achieve international
success but also to secure the environment against any treats.