Opportunities can achieve a lot of cognition, like

Opportunities and Challenges in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks: A Review

Kamlesh Gautam

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Vehicular Ad-hoc NETwork (VANET) is used in many metropolitan and smart cities to perform inter-vehicular communication for stationary conveyance, moving conveyance, autonomously operated conveyance, dealing drones, phone and other ad-hoc networking systems of organizations. So, that we can achieve a lot of cognition, like as to reduce the Reaching Time (RT) of fire fighter troops, ambulance, drones and to reduce the number of accidents/disasters in cities. It plays a vital role in the efficient management of city traffic by preventing traffic jams and effective control of drones as well. VANETs are deployed in two dimensional as well as three dimensional networks in accordance to the applications to attain energy efficient routing and easy handoff. The determination of appropriate topology and characteristics of VANET is of prime importance for densely deployed 2D/3D networks. VANET is compatible with 5G technologies and able to deliver high throughput suffering lower delay providing higher energy efficiency.

The objective of this paper is to present opportunities and challenges in VANETs to spread the awareness of this emerging field. It is an attempt to review and present the work which has already been done by eminent researchers of this field. The aim is to motivate researchers to contribute in this field.


VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network)

VC (Vehicular Communication)


1 Introduction

The core consideration about VANET is to   wireless access between vehicles with roadside applications. Nowadays it is used in many cities for VC. The VC is a process of communication between vehicles. These vehicles are may be road side vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, under water vehicles and also on water vehicles.  The VC is applicable to improve the safety in transport and to achieve traffic efficiency.

It is also applicable to convey information about stationary and moving conveyance, automatically operated conveyance, dealing through drones, phones and other ad-hoc network systems of edifices, watercrafts, aircrafts, etc. This technology is used in Japan, USA, and few European countries for army, navy, air force projects. It is also efficiently used in lot of industries of MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) of these countries to achieve economical and organizational goals as per requirements. It is also useful for the marketing application through drones. In present competition timing the fast delivery is a crucial requirement of the market. So as to reduce the reaching time of drones the VC is very help full.

As per the data analysis of WHO the vehicular disaster are increasing continuously after 2000 in maximum nations, which should decrease 1. On the other hand according to current warfare environment of global nation’s (e. g. USA, China, South Korea, North Korea, Russia, UK, India, Pakistan, etc.) air weapon expansion is required. Hence, VC system is helpful to decrease and increase the vehicular disaster in all countries as per requirements. This VC system is not possible without advance networking of VANET to unceasing security and rapid data swapping.

Just from last two years the research papers are increasing extensively on IEEE Xplore about the following things of VANET. These are: The Deployment of VC, Characterization of VC, Two dimensional and/or Three dimensional scenario of VC, Routing in VC, Energy consumption of VC, Hand-off in VC, Modulation scheme in VC, System operating margin in VC, Security in VC, Velocity Chang in VC, Delay in VC, Through Put in VC, Clustering in VC, Packet delaying in VC, Congestion in VC. In these researches, to judge actual estimate of execution of the VC, we implement it on various network and marching simulators. Hence, the research and demand of vehicular communication system is increasing broadly. And the VC system will increase more broadly in overall world. Because the VC system is not established till now in lot of number of countries.

The principle purpose of this review paper is to provide help and motivation in the development of artificial intelligence in the field of vehicles. Hence, the focus of this review paper is centralized technically on the Deployment, Characterization of the VANET in 2D/3D with energy efficient routing and hand off.

The arrangement of this review paper is produced as following: second segment present review about the VANET, third segment present review about VC, fourth segment present review about deployment in VC, fifth segment present review about characterization of VANET in VC, sixth segment present review of VC in two dimension and/or three dimension, seventh segment present review on energy efficient routing of VC, eighth segment present review on handoff of VC, ninth segment present the VC projects, tenth segments presents review about the simulation tools, eleventh segment presents the application of VC, twelfth segment presents feature research problems of VC, thirteenth segment present conclusion of overall review paper finally.