many other hand, he takes “loving- kindness” as

many memoranda, symbols and moving metaphors in the book. God looks like a husband who favors his wife and He does not tire of calling on the unfaithful people to reconstitute themselves. On the one hand, the author criticizes the disobedience and unfaithfulness of the Israelites and proclaims the judgment of the nation of death; on the other hand, he takes “loving- kindness” as the focal point of the book, showing God’s kindness for the people of Israel and pointing out that God waits for the same love from the people. The sin of the people will bring punishment for them, but the purpose of the punishment from God is to return their mind to God. The highest expression of “loving kindness” is the revelation of God’s restoration through the prophecy and the marriage of Hosea. It shows that God still loves the people who are to be expelled from here to there, and He wants to recall them and re-establish the eternal covenant with them. The prophet is able to bring out this touching message fully because he personally experienced God’s feelings and compassion from his dramatic marriage, making the message of the book more contrasting, intense and earnest. After the above description, it is not too difficult for us to understand why “Hosea” means “salvation;” it comes from “Yeshua,” which is also pointing to “Jesus” in the NT.3 Structure and Organization of the BookAccording to Bruce Birch, Hosea does not use the standard forms of prophetic speech, so we cannot find “The messenger formula” (“says the Lord”)4 “There are two chapters(chapter1 and 3) in ‘narrative prose’ telling the story of Hosea’s marriage. The rest of the chapters are different series of sermons written in ‘poetic oracles.'”5 The segmentation of large sections isobvious as we can see that the first and the third chapters and the fourth to the fourteenth chapterare two different genres. “Chapter 1-3, which tells the story of Hosea’s marriage and the meaningof it; chapter 4-14 is the extension of biology of Hosea’s marriage.”6 This unique literary genreof 4-14 has been identified by Walton as “Oracular Prose”.7 In terms of content, according toBirch, “Chapter 4-11 are oracles from the time of Jeroboam’s death until the final days of thekingdom; and chapters 12-14 are from the very last days of Israel when it is evident that thenation’s collapse cannot be averted.”8 We can see there is always hope from the author in God’sdetermined love. However, I agree with Walton, the proposal observes the structure of the marriagestory in a literary pattern known technically as a palistrophe. This chiastic pattern (A Restoration, B Punishment, B’ Punishment, A’ Restoration) explains the structure in a full meaning. It especially treats chapter 2 not as a rupture to the account of Hosea’s personal life with a prophetic sermon but the composition of the Lo-Ammi Oracle.9Three Reading Angles and MethodologiesThere are three approaches for me to reading the Book. They are Canonical Reading, Traditional Criticism, and Rhetorical Criticism on the use of metaphors. According to Boda in Heartbeat of Old Testament Theology there is a very important concept of interpretation of the Old Testament, which is accepted by Bible scholars. It can pass through the entire Old Testament and the New Testament as a complete history of biblical interpretation of the Old Testament. It is named “relational creed.”10 “The relational creed is often illustrated with the common English translation of the Hebrew word b?rît (??? ???? ) into ‘covenant’ as a root.”11 The word b?rît articulates much of the nature of the relationship between Yahweh and humanity, and the book of Hosea is no exception (2:18; 6:7; 8:1). Even though we can find echoes of the covenant, there is no citation of the covenant in Hosea (2:14-15; 2:23: 11:1-4; 13:4-6). These relational creeds are prescient for the failure that people may face in the relationship between God and man, that is to say, in order to give humankind the opportunity to respond once again to God and to renew the relationship with God. Such creed is to prepare for the reconstruction after this kind of failure.12 That is exactly what we see in the cycles of the Book of Hosea—God was ultimately waiting in the covenant for his people. Moreover, These creeds use the simplest language to clarify the God whom the Israelites worship and how He expressed Himself in a relationship (Hosea 12:9; 13:4)13 as God’s “self-introduction already known to Israel” and “Israel’s confessional formula.”14 God knows who He is and what the relationship is between Him and the Israelites.Tradition Criticism: The Prophets frequently use the same motifs and traditions without citing explicitpassages from the Pentateuch.15 Leviticus 26:12 is one such passage often referenced this way: “I will also walk among you and be your God, and you shall be My people.” Such sentences have been repeated throughout the Old Testament and can be found in Hosea 1:9-10.16 The Sinai covenant is also in view in the use of this relational tradition from Hosea in Romans.17 Garrett believes that Hosea makes some allusions to the Genesis and Exodus stories; for instance, the Exodus allusions are at 7:13; 8:4-6; 9:10; 10:9-10; 11:1-4; 12:9-10; 13:4-6. Garrett found that there are other allusions of the biblical texts like 4:2 echoes the Decalogue, 9:9 looking back to the history of Judges 19-21, and most important is Hosea’s fundamental metaphor of Israel being an adulterous wife.18Moreover, according to Brueggemann, Hosea is one of the prophets closest to the Torah traditions of Deuteronomy. His faith is based on the cycle of the Levites and is close to thetraditions of Deuteronomy, which is the “definitive trajectory” of the Torah out of Sinai in the OT. However, Hosea understood Israel’s life and destiny regarding Torah categories and used the Torah as his canon.19 Another scholar, Buber, has called Jeremiah Hosea’s ‘posthumous disciple,’20 as Jeremiah seems to have seen himself as heir to Hosea’s mission in the language, the imagery, and the theological concepts, especially in interpretation of the covenant.Rhetorical Criticism: Rhetorical FeaturesUse of Images and Metaphors  The Book reveals the personality of the prophet, a man who in a moment could swingfrom violent anger to the most profound tenderness in string emotions. Also, he is an imaginative and visualizing prophet in using striking images in the Book. He can announce that Israel’s love is like a morning mist: it quickly disappears in the heat of the day (6:4). He depicted Israel as adulterers, who are compared to a “heated oven,” in an extended sill in which the heat of the oven also expresses anger and sedition, and Ephraim is a cake that does not feel the heat (7:4-9). He also portrays Ephraim as a senseless bird fluttering between Egypt and Assyria in search of safety, and wandering far from God (7:11). He can describe Ephraim as a diseased, dried-up plant that bears no fruit (9:16), a metaphor that condemns the Baal cult for failure to provide fertility regarding both good harvest and strong children. Sometimes we find Hosea’s imagery in the usage of Hebrew wordplay.21Yahweh is portrayed in many images and aspects in Hosea, and some metaphors of God are striking to the point of blasphemy. He uses “the traditional husband (2:2), father (11:1), and physician (14:4) images, Yahweh is also a fowler (7:12-27), a lion or leopard (13:7), a bear (13:8), dew (14:5), a green tree (14:8), and even maggots or gangrene (5:1228).”22 The purpose of this kind of language describing God is to wake his audience. Hosea uses consistent pathos in his message through the use of rhetorical questions. Thus, Garrett found the clear example in 11:8: ‘How can I give you up, Ephraim? How can I treat you like Admah? How can I make you like Zebiim? My heart is changed within me; My heart is changed within me, all my compassion is aroused.’ Garrett illustrates the application of rhetorical anthropomorphism of God, which is used “To transform the abstraction of divine compassion into vivid reality.”23