Kuhn in 1962 define paradigm as an accepted model or pattern.
Guba defined paradigm
may be viewed as a set of basic beliefs (or metaphysics) that deals with
ultimates or first principles. It represents a worldview that defines
for its holder, the nature of the “world”, the individual’s place in it and the
possible relationships to that world and its parts, as, for example cosmologies
and theologies do”
Paradigm are sets of
beliefs and practices of researchers that regulates inquiry and work within a
discipline and by this a specific research is approached.
Orilkowski and Baroudi described three paradigms Positivist,
Interpretive and Critical, classified by Epistemology. Guba and Lincoln added
Post positivism as a new paradigm In mid 1980s many researcher started
Guba suggested that paradigms are belief systems based on
1. Ontology which questions “What is the form
and nature of reality?”
2. Epistemology which questions “How do you
know the knowledge and What can be known
3. Methodology which questions “How do you
find out what can be known ?”
is concerned with the nature and forms of knowledge (Cohen et al., 2007, p. 7)
and Ontology is the study of being (Crotty, 1998, p. 10) and “they shape
the approach to theory and the methods” that are employed by social
scientist (Marsh& Furlong, 2010: p.
Epistemology and ontology together make a sense to view the knowleged
and how a researcher relates to it. Ontological and epistemological perspective
has a set of choices which includes deductive versus inductive, objective
versus subjective, realism versus relativism.
is the view that things exist as meaningful entities independently of
counciouness and experience, that they have truth and meaning residing in them
as objects truth and meaning and researcher can attain it(Crotty, 1998, p. 4).
Objectivist and subjectivist are associated with the same philosophy of
classical liberalism with significant differences between them forming two
different approaches. Peter T. Calcagnoa
research is generally referred to as phenomenological research.(
has an ontological perspective which believes in realism and assumes that an
apprehendable reality exists (guba). It believes in a single truth which is
investigated with structured instrumentation((Crotty, 1998, p. 9).This paradigm
is reductionist and deterministic(Hesse, 1980)
In this empiricist epistemological
perspective, it is assumed that the researcher and the object of investigation
are independent entities and neither of them can be influenced by each
other.(guba). The focus is on reliable and valid tools to obtain the reality
and bias to be prevented.
methodology in positivism is experimental and attempt to explain relationship
(J Scotland), identify cause which influences outcomes(Creswell, 2009, p. 7).
Questions and hypothesis are stated and put to an empirical test to verify
them(guba). With a deductive approach and belief that everything can be
observed and measured, results are derived which may be used to formulate
has developed from positivism has some similar beliefs but not identical(J
scotland).It accepts the philosophy of critical realism (cook, cambell, 1979)
and assumes that reality can only be apprehended imperfectly, observation can
be fallible, can have errors and theory can The methodology. It claims that
reality must be subjected to critical examination by multiple measurements and
observations to know reality to the best possible but may not be perfect (cook,
cambell, 1979; Guba)
popper annexed the epistemology of falsification and there can be bias due to
the intractable nature of the phenomena(guba), the researcher can be biased by
their world view, so all observations are fallible. The emphasis on using
different measures which may have some error but in triangulation may give
better results. It attempts to establish relationships rather than just to
measure the effects of the cause.
flows the ways of falsifying the hypotheses rather than just verifying it and
incorporates Feyerabend’s methodological pluralism (Hetherington 2000).It
refers to a combination of methods depending upon the specific research
question and use a more integrated approach to study the phenomenon (Adam,
2014). It does not reject quantitative methods but accepts qualitative methods
also and measures variable that cannot be observed. It prefers
quasi-experiments over true-experiments Cohen et al. (2007, p. 8)
paradigm rejects the principles of positivism and post-positivism(Hillary).
Relativism is the ontological perspective of interpretivism(j scotland).
Reality is interpreted to understand phenomenon by analyzing the meanings
assigned by the participants (Croty, Scotland) It believes that individuals
have their own subjectivity and reality is not the same for every
individual.(croty ; guba)
epistemological is one of subjectivism and transactional (guba; j Scotland).
The researcher and the object of research are linked and the findings are
created as the study progress(guba). There is no objective reality to discover
but needs to be constructed and individuals may interpret truth in different
ways.(Croty page 9). We call the tree a
tree because humans constructed the social world(Hillary) and named it a tree. Crotty (1998, p. 43).
emphasis of the methodology is on individual constructions, elicited by the
interaction of the researcher and the respondent which is interpreted by
hermeneutical techniques.(guba).Interpretive approach is usually inductive and
knowledge is generated from the findings(J scotland).
paradigm has historical realism as the ontological perspective. It believes
that reality over time has been shaped by multiple factors and formulated on to
a series of structures which a false virtual reality. (guba)
The epistemology it has is of subjectivism. The results are value mediated as the
researcher, and the object of research are linked and the research is
influenced by the value of the researcher. (guba). It challenges reality and
believes that reality can be deformed by humans(j scotland) and individuals are
with the world when they are in the world(croty 149)
paradigm has a dialogic approach between the researcher and the subject of
inquiry(guba). The methodology is directed at interrogating values and
assumptions and engages in social action and challenges the conventional
structures(J scotland). It has critical discourse analysis, critical discourse
analysis, critical ethnography, action research and ideology critique.
and postmodernism rejects the idea of a fixed, universal reality and truth
follows multiple methodologies
is a deductive study which will compare different technique in terms of minimum
errors and duration for the completion of the technique, both the variables to
measured are quantitative. The observation and measures are liable for error
and bias and every attempt will be made to control it. The ontological position
of the study will be critical realism with the belief of existence of an
objective reality which can be measured but may have bias and so will have
consciousness examination. The measurement will be derived by two researchers
to get the best result.
will study follow post-positivist paradigm from an ontological perspective
which believes the existence of an objective reality that is one which can be
measured. A quasi-experimental methodology will be used to collect quantitative