JD-R model (Bakker and Demerouti 2007, Demerouti 2001).

JD-R work engagement

Proof concerning the
antecedents as well as consequences of engagement can be structured to a complete
model. In developing this, there are two pressumptions from job demands and resources
(JD-R) model (Bakker and Demerouti 2007, Demerouti 2001).

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•           The first is that job sources such as
support from co-workers and managers, efficiency reviews, and independence,
start an inspirational process that results in work involvement, and
consequently to higher accomplishment.

•           The second is that job sources become
more significant and obtain their inspirational potential when workers are
faced with high job demands (e.g. amount of work, psychological demands).


Further, the work of Xanthopoulou (2007), who extended
the model suggests, job along with individual resources are jointly connected, and
individual resources can act as a separate forecaster of engagement. So,
workers that rank high on optimism, self efficacy, and self esteem can organize
the job resources, hence they are involved in the job.

                This model of work engagement is portrayed
below (Figure 1). Job and personal resources individually or mixed estimate engagement,
especially when job requirements are more. Involvement, thus, has a good effect
on work outcome. Lastly, engaged workers do well and can create their own
resources, which promotes engagement.

Figure 1. The JD-R
engagement model


        Engagement plays a role to understand
actions like labour relocation, unwillingness to perform and low attendance
(Aryee 1994). Work involvement is described as intellectual belief of emotional
recognition of the worker with his or her job (Kanungo 1982). Workers emotional
recognition helps to ensure they become dynamic, and effective and satisfy
needs of their career when doing job concerned tasks (Maslach and Leiter 1997,
Schaufeli and Bakker 2001). Trust in the task and recognizing the goals of work
is significant for work engagement (Gunluk, 2010).

             Work engagement do not mean alike as
organizational engagement. Workers can appear involved not only in the
workplaces but also in the work (Engelberg-Moston 2009). Engagement can get
influenced by employee’s good mindset to the tasks and companies. Having less
interest to quit, job satisfaction and job engagement are these good mindsets (Demerouti
2001, Schaufeli and Bakker 2001, Schaufeli, Taris and Van Rhenen 2008). Engagement
is also relevant to good workplace behaviors like effort, taking on extra responsibilities
and organizing (Sonnentag, 2003, Salanova, Agut and Peiró, 2005).

              Work engagement is
analysed by demands and resources of work. Work requirements are physical,
emotional, social and workplace factors that need constant physical and mental
efforts from employees. Job resources are physical, emotional, social and workplace
aspects of work that help employees in obtaining his objectives, control stress
at workplace and personal growth. (Schaufeli and Bakker 2004).

dimensions of engagement


Schaufeli and Bakker
(2004) point out the three dimensions of engagement. They are as follows:

            Vigor represents the sense of being
dynamic and resilient, the desire to put in effort in the job, also determination
when faced with complications. The conceptual reverse of vigor is considered to
be exhaustion. Vigor is those energy levels an individual has while he is at
work. It is an individual’s willingness to put in effort to do ones work even
when there are obstacles.

         Dedication explains meaningfulness,
passion and proudness of his or her duties, and a sense of being motivated and
pushed by work.  Cynicism is exact
reverse of dedication. Dedication is how involved an individual is while he is
at work. It shows the individuals level of enthusiasm, joy and motivation to perform
his job.

       Absorption represents strong involvement
in one’s job and the pleasure of being engrossed, problems in pulling back
yourself from your job, one forgets the time and all he is surrounded with.
Absorption is something like Csikszentmihalyi’s idea of “flow”, a temporary
experience about a flowing state, but according to Schaufeli and Bakker absorption
is persistent and a chronic state than “flow”. Compared with vigor and dedication,
absorption don’t have a conceptual reverse in burnout dimensions. (Hakanen 2011,
Hakanen 2007, Schaufeli and Bakker 2004). Absorption occurs when an individual
is into his work so much that he does not notice what happens around him while
he is at work. The individual also finds it difficult to detach himself from
the job.