Introduction: one behind, while making development economically, socially

Introduction:

Poverty is a
widespread condition in India. It includes not only economic instability but
also social discrimination and exclusion, lack of basic services, such as
education, health, water and sanitation, and lack of participation in decision
making. In September
2015, the post 2015 UN Development Agenda, comprising of 17 Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) that address the key concerns of humanity and 169
interlinked Targets will be adopted, replacing the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs). These ambitious and aspirational SDGs call for significant rethinking
in development processes across the world. Building on the MDGs, the SDGs
propose to end poverty and deprivation in all forms, leaving no one behind,
while making development economically, socially and environmentally sustainable.
The Government of India has also adopted the principle of Sabka Sath, Sabka
Vikas (“Together with All, Development for All”), and stated that the
“first claim on development belongs to the poor”.

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Poverty in India:

Poverty
is a significant issue in India. The World Bank reviewed and proposed revisions
in May 2014, to its poverty calculation methodology and purchasing power parity
basis for measuring poverty worldwide, including India. According to this
revised methodology, the world had 872.3 million people below the new poverty
line, of which 179.6 million people lived in India. In other words, India with
17.5% of total world’s population had 20.6% share of world’s poorest in 2011. Planning Commission of India defined poverty and
measured on calorie based both in rural and urban areas. It is defined that
below poverty lines (BPL) people consumed 2400 Kcal / day in rural areas and
2100 Kcal/day in urban areas.  Suresh
Tendulkar Committee recommended BPL as Rs. 27 in rural areas and 33 in urban
areas report submitted in 2011-12, but former RBI Governor, C. Rangarajan Committee
submitted a report  Govt that in the year
2014 that BPL as those spending Rs. 32/- per day in rural areas and Rs. 47/- in
urban cities. Majority of the rural poor in India are poor because, lack of
assets like land and unemployment. Besides this caste, race, ethnicity, gender
are other dimension.

Initiatives for Poverty Eradication:

An important anti-poverty program has focused on
generating employment through public works that help develop agricultural
infrastructure, productive assets and entrepreneurship-based livelihood
opportunities. With the inspiration of free independent India, Govt. of India
initiated allocated lion share in the financial budgets to change the socio
economic and political areas. Different rural development programmes and
schedules were introduced. The Community Development programme (CDP) was
introduced on October 2nd 1952. It focuses on self-governance and develops
leadership at gross root level. Some other programmes like Intensive
Agriculture Areas Development Programme, Drought prone Area Programme (DPAP),
Hill Area Development Programme, command Area Development Programme and
Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) implemented during 1970 to 1980.
National Rural Employment Programme (NREGP), Rural Labor Employment Guarantee
Programme (RLEGP) and Jawahar Rojgar Yojana (JRM) are also some of the poverty
alleviation programmes. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee
Programme (MGNREGP) is flagship programme that implemented in the year 2006.
This programme main objective in to provide wage employment 100 days in a Calendar
year and also extended 150 days in a year in mandatory.

Poverty
Eradication and Sustainable Development Goals:

In
September 2015, a new set of development goals have been agreed by 193
countries in a special summit at the United Nations (UN). These are called
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that aim to end poverty, achieve gender
equality and ensure food security in every corner of the globe by 2030. Poverty eradication seems to be one of the main
priorities of this grand framework. SDGs have marked the end of development
as poverty eradication.

To be more specific the first
target of this goal that states: By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all
people everywhere. It also aims
to ensure social protection for the poor and vulnerable, increased access to
basic services and support people harmed by climate-related extreme events and
other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters. Ending poverty in all its forms everywhere implies
attention to both completely eliminating extreme poverty while attending to
other key socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental dimensions of
poverty, and monitoring progress in social protection and inequality.

Targets:

Ø 
By
2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured
as people living on less than $1.25 a day

Ø 
By
2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all
ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

Ø 
Implement
nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all,
including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the
vulnerable

Ø 
By
2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable,
have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services,
ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance,
natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including
microfinance

Ø 
By
2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and
reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and
other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

There is compelling evidence that India has achieved
following the economic reforms initiated in 1991 has led to significant
reduction in poverty. Poverty has fallen across all economic, social and
religious groups nationally and in all states in the post-reform era. Sustained
growth (6.2% from 1993- 94 to 2003-04 and 8.3% from 2004-05 to 2011-12) has
created gainful employment and helped raise wages thereby directly empowering
the poor. It has also brought the government an increased volume of revenues
enabling it to sustain a high level of social spending and, thus, doubling the
direct effect of growth on poverty. Several large-scale anti-poverty programmes
have been implemented. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee
Act, for instance, has generated over 2 billion person-days of employment
during 2016-17 alone, largely for the disadvantaged sections of society.
Additionally, initiatives have been launched for providing pension and
insurance to workers in the unorganised sector, widows and the differently
abled. Over 130 million people have accessed life and accident insurance under
these programmes.

Further, efforts are underway to universalize access to
basic services. In order to achieve the goal of housing for all by 2022, direct
financial assistance is being extended to poor households. Nearly 3.21 million
houses were constructed last year as part of this initiative in rural areas.
Programmes are also being implemented for ensuring access to education, health
and nutrition security, with a special focus on vulnerable groups such as women
and children. Other priority areas are drinking water and sanitation.
Currently, nearly 77.5% of rural habitations are being provided with 40 litres
of drinking water per capita on a daily basis. Another 18.9% habitations have
been covered partially thus far. Over 63.7% of households in rural areas had
access to an improved sanitation facility in 2016-17 as compared to 29.1% in
2005-06. With respect to clean sources of cooking fuel, over 22 million
families have been provided with Liquefied Petroleum Gas connections under the
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana. Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, households having
access to clean fuel have increased from 25.5% to 43.8%.