Introduction (2016) reported that pesticides are harmfull for

Introduction

 

Plant production is mainly depends on
irrigation and the efficient management of limited water resources. Drought reduces agricultural product in the world. Due to
water reduction in many countries, farmers tend to use wastewater. Water
reuse has many benefits such as reduction in contamination of ground water by
sewage water and increase arable lands (Anderson, 2003). Salinity, sodium,
trace elements, chlorine and nutrients are constituents in reclaimed water for
crop plant irrigation that are noticeable (EPA, 1992). Wastewater
constituents such as detergent and pesticide can affect seed germination. Shakir
et al. (2016) reported that pesticides are harmfull for tomato seed
germination. High levels of zinc, lead and cadmium did not reduced survival of Coronilla varia and Lotus corniculatus (Bae
et al., 2016). Oil crops irrigated
with treated domestic sewage water produced more oil yield than control (fresh
water). This kind of oil can be used for industrial purposes (Hussein et al.,
2004). Canola (Brassica napus L.) plants irrigated with sewage water had
lower growth, seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield than control
(fresh water) (Ahmad et al., 2011). Sinha and Paul (2013) reported that Cicer
arietinum had the highest seed vigor index at 20% sewage concentration over
control and seed germination percentage was reduced from concentration of 30%
onwards. Sarwar et al. (2011) reported that among nine industrial waste water
samples, the waste water of textile and dying industries resulted in the lowest
seed germination in  red amaranth (Amaranthus
tricolor L). Millioli et al. (2009) reported that the addition of rhamnolipid
biosurfactant in a petroleum-bearing soil had a negative impact on microbial
activity and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination. In triticale
(xTriticosecale Witm. cv. Presto), seed germination percentage and seedling
growth were reduced by decreasing in the osmotic potentials. Water stress
caused by PEG had lower seed germination
characteristics compared to stress caused by NaCl (Kaydan and Yagmur,
2008). Seed germination, emergence, seedling weight, root
length and shoot length in bitter vetch (Vicia
ervilia (L.) Willd.) lines were significantly
reduced by NaCl (Cocu and Uzun, 2011). In Chenopodium glaucum L.,
salinity caused by MgCl2, Na2SO4, Na2CO3,
NaCl and MgSO4 and water stress caused by PEG reduced seed
germination. NaCl had more adverse effect on seed germination percentage than
that of PEG at osmotic potential less than -0.5 MPa under
iso-osmotic solutions (Duan et al., 2004). Water chlorination is used to
reduce waterborne disease in tap water. When this waste water is used for
irrigating crop plants, crop performance can be affected (Akande et al., 2010).

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                One of the ingredients
of wastewater is heavy metal. The lowest seed germination was reported in copper concentration of 20 to 200 mg/L for both red fescue
and perennial ryegrass (Taghizadeh and Solgi, 2017). Heavy metals had toxic effect on
seed germination of Lepidium sativum. This toxicity was depended on
metal type and concentration (Pavel et al., 2013).  Heavy
metals (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+)
had more adverse effect on Arabidopsis thaliana seedling growth than
seed germination (Li et al., 2005).

Maize plant irrigated by 20 g/L of cloth
detergent had the lowest biomass (Heidari, 2012). Janmohammadi et al. (2008) reported that water stress reduces radical and
caulicle length in maize (Zea mays). Afzali et al. (2006) found that Matricaria chamomilla biomass and seed germination were reduced as water
stress level increased. Water stress reduced foxtail
millet (Setaria italica) leaf area (Heidari et al., 2011). Maize is widely cultivated
in Iran. Many researchers studied effect of wastewater
on plant growth but little information is
available about effect of laundary detergent on
seed germination. Detergent may increase
plant growth due to some nutrient elements and may inhibit plant growth due to
toxicity of salts and increasing water osmotic potential. Effect of water deficit stress and landry detergent on seed
germination and growth of maize was assessed in the experiment.