were followed, however, the participants had trouble administrating high voltages,
at some point, some requested to stop but the authority figure reassured that
they should carry on instead. Milgram noted that although few participants
refused to continue with the experiment, generally they were obedient when
authority said they had no option but to carry on.
Perry (2014) cited in (Jarvis, 2015) challenged Milgram’s conclusions
stating that many of his participants were traumatised and there was little
evidence to suggest that they had been debriefed and they were never causing
harm. She also criticizes his results and stated that the experimenter in some
cases, was not following the verbal cues nor ending the procedure and causing a
considerable amount of pressure on the participants to obey.
ethical implications of this study are subjected to firstly, uninformed
consent, as the participants were told it was an experiment for learning and
teaching not an experiment on obedience.
Secondly, deception because they were lying about the purposes of the
research or that the learner was an actor and lastly, there was no protection
from harm as some of them were psychologically damaged as they merely believed
they were causing harm and were not debriefed on time.
psychologist named Philip Zimbardo (1973) carried out an experiment to evidence
how quickly the behaviour can be adapted to changes. The experiment involved a
number of college students to be confined to a basement simulating a prison and
half of them had to be prisoners and the rest were guards. Prisoners were
supposed to stay in their cubicle twenty-three hours a day for two weeks but
due to the quickly decreasing conditions developing on the experiment it came
to an end on the sixth day. Guards had become vicious and brutal, dehumanising
the prisoners whom consequently became depressed.
captured the data through observations, questionnaires and interviews.
Unfortunately, as a limiting issue, his results cannot be generalised to the
general population as his main subjects of the study were purely white, healthy
and young college students, equally, the overall length of the study was not
accomplished and it may not be comparable to a real prison environment.
study also raised ethical issues, the participants were not told they were
going to be arrested at their homes (uninformed consent), they were not
protected from the extreme conditions as two prisoners became very ill and one
had to be withdrawn from the study. Additionally, the positive ethical issues
are flagged up when Zimbardo debriefed individually and in groups everyone
involved in the experiment.
read before, we can conclude that these psychological approaches differ in so
many ways but they are also linked to each other. It is important to illustrate
that Maslow’s theory aid developing counselling therapies in psychotherapy and
is widely used in companies for human resources management as a technique to
improve employees’ performance (Greenberg & Baron, 2003).
regards of the nursing and healthcare professions practice, behavioural
therapists maintain that behaviour is learned and can also be un-learned. However,
if we look into the care of a person’s holistic or therapeutic needs, we must
remember that every individual is unique (Maslow & Rogers, 1943, 1959) and
therefore different therapies may need to be used in conjunction with other
therapies taking into consideration that they all can be helpful.
worth mentioning that some people may find some approaches more attractive than
others even with the criticism received that some of them are only effective on
a short-term basis, nevertheless, it is important to take into consideration that
some therapies are more effective in certain areas than others which is a point