In an organisation, slow response from subordinates,

In a nutshell in the preceeding sections I have laid
the foundation for culture as a social construct ,then explained the inevitable
change this construct will face due to globalisation , influx of other
cultures, advent of technology etc. Furthermore I outlined the various
strategies comparing and contrasting its background. Then I moved on to explain
how the role of leadership is essential to manage culture. Its inhabitants and
the changes it faces. Therefore all the ideas of organisation culture, change
management strategy and leadership are interlinked .Every organisation is
composed of these elements whose right proportion will lay the cornerstone of a
strong foundation and if the mixture goes wrong then it will fall down like a
house of cards!


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Survey done by Harvard Business in
2006, The most prominent obstacles faced in managing change process are
Employee Resistance, communication breakdown, staff turnover and insufficient
time for implementing change, misalignment among different teams. (See
Appendix-3) To avoid employee resistance, Leaders role is to leverage
relationship with your team and subordinates, address employee concern on a
personal level, regular asking for their feedback and respond to their concerns
honestly and openly. Information needs to be communicated to employees on an
ongoing and consistent basis, this will avoid communication breakdown. At the
end it is important for leaders to coach, mentor and enrich their roles by
engaging their team and involving them in the initiatives.  At the same time leaders need to put their priority
on the needs of customer and to align team to one direction, one goal, one
objective which is customer oriented.


3.4 Role of Leaders for managing obstacles during change management



         In the era of globalisation, world is
a global market, complete understanding of different national, regional,
industrial culture is a tedious task for any leaders.  For an effective change management, an
adaptive work environment requires the adaptive leaders to control direction,
conflict and norms within the organisation systems. The three elementary
elements of leadership are the ability to influence, a common goal and employee
willing to work toward the vision. However, leaders often had to face
resistance from employees to redirect an organisation, slow response from
subordinates, misalignment between different teams, lack of accountability,
lack of communication between different teams, multi-directional approach of
different team towards company objectives.
(See Appendix 2) Davy et al. (1988,.20) suggest that “the only thing about organizational and change is that nothing is
certain”. Furthermore, they estimate that “employee problems” are
responsible for third and half of all failure

3.4 Leadership
problems in change management

In the previous
sections I have presented the qualities of a good leader ( in a utopian manner
) now I put the role of leadership to test. In the next section I have
scrutinised the problems an organisation’s leadership can face.

        Leaders must set expectations and help
people build the skillsets, all employee should be provided with tools,
resources and opportunities that allow them to grow and gain confidence in the
way they are working. Reinforcing a culture of accountability, leaders hold
people responsible for things they do. Making accountability part of culture
begins with clearly defining established measures (increase in sales, customer
satisfaction rating) so all the employees are clear what success looks like.  Finally, “Creating
change requires a rational and more importantly, an emotional connection. No
matter how rational an argument you make for the need for change, people will
not buy in until you engage them on an emotional level.”  To implement change effectively leaders, need
to be emotionally connected with their team than using rational approach. From
the movie “Wolf of the wall street” Belfort said, the most effective strategy
is one that uses “Persuasion”. It is the gift that will make your vision for
the world known to others. “once you become good at it, you can actually
manipulate people; you can get people to do things they shouldn’t do.   Thus, we can be implementing cultural
challenge is not simple, it involves remoulding of behaviour, emotional
connection with employees, taking a great deal of time and hard work from
everyone involved.


          Leaders, top management, CEO have a
huge influence in organisation culture. In fact, a strong culture starts with
effective leadership, you need to follow what you say and be accountable for
actions within an organisation.  As
mentioned in the beginning, Organisational culture change is concerned with
beliefs, tradition, human behaviour with in the organisational structure. It is
well known that As Michela and Burke (2000,.19) claim, to change culture, we
must first understand it. Leaders need to understand to lead any organisational
culture change and they should display in their behaviour. Leaders need to
effectively communicate change and gives employee message what is expected of
them, they need to clear with what their role is and how it impacts the
organisation. Communicate with each employee how the organizations purpose
connects to the specific job they are performing daily.

Leadership role in organisation culture change


With the need for an adaptive leader
expressed, in the next section I highlight the role of leadership in an

Leadership is not a “one size fits
all” but it’s more like how you adapt to your approach to fit the different
situation. For different organisation culture, leaders need to adapt different
role. Such as for an organisation having a clan culture leader should play a
role of a facilitator, mentor and team builder, adhocracy culture leaders
should act as an innovator, visionary and entrepreneur. In market culture,
leader’s role will be more like a competitor, producer and goal oriented where
as in hierarchy culture leaders act as coordinator, monitor and organiser.


            3.2 Leaders
role in different organisational cultures


            Therefore in my opinion if leadership
and organizational culture  work
together, then leadership can play a major role and be an effective factor in
changing organization’s culture when needed, and it can affect the decision
making in carrying out change in organisation.

          Also, some researchers supposed that
leadership is a simple component of organizational culture, they assumed that
by shaping the organizational values, norms, regulations or the way
organisation should work and constructing the social reality by leader an
organization naturally became a strong organizational culture. Where in some
organization, leaders create their tools to either evolve the current culture
or to change the existing standard. stated that the leadership patterns differ
based on how the subordinates observe their organizational culture. Bass and
Avolio (1993,.18)

Now let us
build a link between leadership and organisational culture.Leadership should be
transformational if it is aimed to serve the organisation, because
organisational culture change starts from beginning, needs much time, energy
and commitment to achieve outcomes. Theories of transformational leadership
shows that this style of leadership where a leader works with subordinates to
identify needed change, creating a vision through inspiration and serves to
enhance the motivation, morale and job performance of followers.


3.1 Leadership and organisation culture


Leadership is a practical skill, ability to lead or guide other
individual, teams, or entire organisation. Leadership and organisational
culture is widely linked to the change management process. For Example, Bass
(1985,.15) leaders must possess a clear understanding of strategic objectives
for their organisation, they must identify the actions needed to attain those
objectives and conduct an analysis of organisation existing ideologies. According to
Kouzes and Posner (2003,.16), there are five practices of exemplary leaders:
they challenge the process, spur a shared vision, model the way, encourage the
heart, and enable others to act. Also, Burns (1978,.17) defined leadership as
leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals; that represent the motives
and the values of both leaders and followers. Burns (1978,.17) distinguished
between the transformational leadership that lay on true trust and honesty and
the transactional leadership that requires an evaluation of quality.





 At this juncture I have established the types
of change.A planned change involves the organisation as a whole and calls for
collective participation. The individuals feel they are a part of the change. Hence
the role of the leadership team will have more impact and organic evolution of
ideas will be seen. Emergent change is more authoritative with a basis of just
following orders. This could lead to resistance towards the leadership which I
have illustrated more under the subheading ‘Leadership problems in change

Comparison and my views :


 Thus, it is possible for an organisation to
learn to change because “deep down we all are learners”. Peter Senge’s vision
of a learning organisation as a group of people continue to expand their
capacity, skillsets continuously. The five steps “system thinking “, “mental
models”, “personal mastery”, “teams”, “vision” which aims to create high level
of innovation to remain competitive, improve efficiency, improve quality of
output at all levels, having the knowledge to better link with customer needs
and finally increase the pace of change within the organisation. Hence,
therefore It is very important for an organisation to break existing pattern
and strive for continuous improvement.

Learning organisation develop
because of the growing competition among modern organisations and enables them
to be competitive in the modern business environment.  The learning organisation model was advanced
by (Senge,P. 1990,.11,) , “Change is teaming and learning is change”, it can be
only possible if we are adaptive to new learning.  According to me the best strategy is to be
able to learn, unlearn and relearn.


        2.3.3. The learning Organization


Next we move on
to a model of emergent change.

Comparing both
the models , in my opinion  the Kotters
steps of change emphasises on small changes adding up to a significant change.
This allows more time for adaptation to the change an essential requirement for
a successful workplace.


Kotter 8 step process for leading change is a great
starting point for developing organisational change strategy. The step one
“Creating a sense of urgency” in order for people to have the level of
motivation needed for that change to succeed, they must feel a sense of
urgency. They need to know change is essential. Step two “forming a powerful
guiding coalition” focus targets on creating small group of team leaders that
represent entire organisation and they should have expertise and influence to
bring out the change. Step three “Creating a vision” the vision and strategy of
change should be well focussed, realistic, attainable and easily communicated
to others. The fourth step “Communicate the vision” aims to encourage a
dialogue that is clear and simple to be understood by everyone in the
organisation and it should be clear. Step five “Empowering others to act on the
vision”. This step aims to determine all the hurdles (organisational structure,
skillsets, cultural barrier and individual resistance) and work towards removing
all barriers in advance.  “Planning for
and creating short-term wins” is the next step which aims to overcome short
term change on the way to overcome resistance and build momentum for the longer
run. Step seven “Consolidating improvements and producing still more change” is
a step that resists change to re-emerge later in the process. The intention is
to continue to move the change forward by keeping the urgency high This is
achieved by encouraging employee, greater focus on the strategic vision by
leadership. The final step “institutionalising new approaches”. This means make
the changes last and make it as a norm in the organisation. New employees
should see change as part of the culture. Heling, W.J.
(2017,.12) and Selwyn.S.(2011,.13)


2.3.2 Kotter: 8 steps of change


               Lewin’s 3 step model for organisational
change, the first step in this model is the icebreaker, a need to “unfreeze”
people. The aim is to make individual understand why things needs to be done on
other way. The goal is to make everyone understand why the current process,
level of acceptability, is hindering growth of organisation some way. This step
is more culture sensitive, it is necessary to understand old behaviours, way of
thinking, structure, people and process to create an awareness among them.
Effective communication is important during the unfreeze stage so that everyone
will be informed about the need of change, how they are getting affected by
change process and the most important is to align everyone on the same page.
The second step in the model is “changing”. Now the people is aware or unfrozen
they can begin to move in a different way, need to develop new insights,
attitude and skills. This is the time when an organisation moves into new state
of being, It is a transition stage, in other way it’s an implementation stage.
This is when change becomes real, it is marked with uncertainty and fear and
it’s the hardest step to overcome. 
During the changing step people begin to learn the new behaviours,
processes, and the way of thinking. It is the critical time for all employees
as they are getting familiar with the new process. In my opinion this is
pivotal stage for any change strategy.Finally, the third step is “freezing”. At
this level all new skills acquired needs to develop in a routine. All changes
made to organisation process, goals, structure are accepted as new norms or
values. This step is especially important in the way that people should not
revert to old behaviour, process. Efforts must be made to guarantee the change
by effective monitoring, by acknowledging individual efforts, rewarding them
and keeping a watch on change for some time. Heling,
W.J. (2017,.12) and (three step model , mind tools.)


2.3.1 Lewin’s 3 Step model


   To understand more of planned change, I have
presented  Lewin’s 3 step model and
Kotter’s 8 step model. Learning organisational Senge, P. (1990,.11), the fifth
discipline gives a better idea of emergent change  . Each change approach has its own has its effects:
positive and negative, however no model is fixed for all situation, but it
depends more on the approach that is relevant to the circumstances, business
needs, company’s goal.


                         2.2 Model
describing change management


  In my belief the type of change management
strategy chosen by an organisation is crucial to track its progress. Every
organisation uses different resources and process to guide behaviour and
change. An example is Burnes (2004,.10), where two approaches are presented to
change management , these being -planned and emergent change. Planned change is
a more process oriented and having systematic approach which involves different
steps to reach final objective, it focusses more on moulding or aligning every
process involved in change process where as emergent change focus more on
result aspects and view change process as a continuous open minded and
unpredictable process of aligning the different stages involved in change procedure.


                               2.1 Types of
change management


              Due to globalization, world has become a
global Society, competition among different competing companies, influence of
technology and the changing consumer demands, need for change has become a
necessity. Today organisation contend that change has become a constant
phenomenon which must be attended and managed effectively if an organisation
has to survive in present. Changes in technology, the marketplace e.g.
information systems, the global economy, social values, workforce demographics,
and the global political environment all have a significant effect on the
processes, products and services produced. The combination of all these forces
has resulted in an external environment that is dynamic, volatile,
unpredictable, demanding and often devastating to those organizations which are
unprepared or unable to respond to these market changes (Burnes, 2004,.10).  


                          2. Organisational Culture and Need of change management



Now we shall
see how change management becomes a need.

                               Hence there is
no appropriate organisational culture for an organisation. All culture promotes
some forms of behaviour and there is some interference between them. Some are
well suited for the rapid change management and at the same time others sow the
seeds for change within an organisation. Therefore, it is essential to know
what makes an effective corporate culture, and how to change a culture that
isn’t working well with the organisation. This links the idea of an
organisation culture and change management strategy.


 Harrison classified organisational culture into
four different categories role, task, power and person based on cooperation and
spreading of power. In role culture, the person has to rely on formal rules and
regulations, job description of individual is more important than personal
traits. Task culture, more depends on level of skills and competencies to deal
with the task in hand, it is project based manner with deadlines specified.
Whereas power culture organisation tends to be highly autocratic and centred,
with all decision-making power lies with top management. In person culture, a
specific individual serves as a influence for different group members.


1.3   Harrison Model
of Organisation culture (Harrison,1972)

.According to me clan culture is a
better organisational strategy suited for the current organisational workplace
as it brings different persons together. Working together means an amalgamate
of more ideas, tolerance between co-workers hence isolation in terms of work
and life-balance will be curbed.

        From the work of Kim S. Cameron and
Robert E. Quinn in (2006,.9), there exists four types of organisational
culture: clan, Adhocracy, Market, Hierarchy, based on two different dimensions;
internal focus and integration and Stability and control existing within an
organisation. Clan culture is mostly like family type with a primary focus of
working as a team, nurturing, mentoring Adhocracy is more like dynamic and
entrepreneurial approach focusses more on risk-taking and innovation. Market
culture are results oriented, focus on competition, achievement. In short
“getting the job done”. On the other hand, Hierarchy are structured and more of
controlling nature centring on efficiency, stability and an idea of “doing
things right” from beginning.


          1.2 Types of organisational Culture


          Later it took the name “Corporate
Culture”, from the work of Peters and waterman (1982,.7), It is true that a
corporate culture can have a huge impact on the organisation’s work
environment, A strong culture contributes to the employee overall integration
and coordination, collective performance of a team, growth of an individual in
a team, and eventually it determines the success of business. The function of
internal integration can be described as the feeling of individual identity
among personnel and commitment towards the organisation, and coordination
refers to creating an environment in terms of acceptable behaviour and social
system stability (which is the social glue that binds an entire organisation
together (Martins,2000,.8)


            Organizational culture may affect
employees’ identification with an organization. Schein (1992,.3), Deal and
Kennedy (2000,.4) and Kotter (1992,.5) advanced the idea that organizations
often have varied cultures as well as subcultures.  Deal and Kennedy (1982,.6) defined
organizational culture as “the way things get done around here”.


                Ravasi and Schultz (2006,.2)
stated that this organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions
that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate
behaviour for various situations. Although a company may have its “own
unique culture”, in larger organizations there are sometimes conflicting
cultures that co-exist owing to the characteristics of different management
teams. For an example the top management of Adidas has a different business
model for marketing in comparison to the top management team of America.  


                         In my opinion one of
the most important building blocks of a successful organisation, and an
extraordinary workplace, is organisation culture.  It is the way in which organisation works,
and projects the values and beliefs shared by individual in an organisation.
Organisation culture offers a shared mindset which forms the basis of
communication, way of working and mutual understanding among different members
of the organization.  It determines
organization climate and forms the general functioning of the organisation and
ensures all the members are aligned in one direction keeping the interest of
organisation in mind. Organisation culture affects the way people and groups
interact with each other, with clients and with the stakeholders.


1.1  Organisational Culture and its role in organisations





Therefore Certainly, culture sets
the foundation for organisation strategy, any successful implementation of
change strategy must align with the existing organisational culture and its
different dimensions. Cultural awareness and assessment provides the way
organizational members are willing to accept change, and the way they perceive
any change within an organization.


The five Hofstede’s dimension of
national culture is based on cross cultural communication, effect of society’s
culture on the value of its members and how these values relate the individual
behaviour. Hofstede proposed talked of five dimensions, namely power distance,
individualism vs. collectivism, Masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty
avoidance, short vs long term orientation. Hofstede analysis shows
international comparison and correlation of values with other countries, (See Appendix 1) for example power
distance is very high in Latin and Asian countries. However, in the example of Germany
we can see that it has low power distance, masculinity is subordinate in Nordic
countries (Norway 8) where as in Japan it is just the opposite (95). (Hofstede,1991,.1)


Culture’ is a structure of the
society which is very complex. It includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law,
custom and any other capabilities, habits acquired by man as a member of
society and which can be distinguished on many different levels such as
national, regional, tribal, historical, organizational, industry, professional
and functional. Culture shape the behavioural action of personnel and dictates
the way things happen in an organisation. According to Hofstede (1991,.1), the
individual behaviour is influenced by three cultures: national, occupational,
and organizational. Occupational and organisational culture is learned during
school and professional life. It is easy to bring about changes depending on
the circumstances where as in national culture it is difficult to do so.