In considerable debate about the challenges and further

the last 15 years, there has been considerable debate about the challenges and
further opportunities related to bioenergy production. One of the most spoken
topic is the competition of land for food and bioenergy production and these
potential negative environmental effects associated with indirect land use
change (iLUC) seems to be subjective and uncertain. There are several high
yield feedstock available for bioenergy production. Sugarcane, maize, soybean, perennial
grasses, eucalyptus, willow, oil palm, agricultural residues and wastes have
been considered as the most available feedstocks for bioenergy production. The
availability of land, infrastructure and costs for reliable feedstock supply in
many countries and scenarios have also been evaluated.

consumption is developing nations is predicted to have a more pronounced
increase than in developed nations because of the direct relationship between energy
consumption and economic growth. Increasing in energy consumption may lead to
better opportunities for human development as well as improving public health. In
the case of biomass and bioenergy, developing nations that have availability of
land and water may be more appropriate to produce bioenergy. Furthermore, it is
substantial that developing nations have access to sustainable energy sources,
otherwise, they will be encouraged to increase the use of fossil energy and
therefore jeopardising the international attempt to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)

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consumption of fossil fuels to produce energy is responsible for approximately 87%
of energy demand. However, the International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that
this share will decrease by 10%, the total use of fossil fuels is likely to
continue to rise, adding another 6 Gt of carbon to atmosphere by 2035. Bioenergy
is an important available technology to reduce GHG and therefore playing a substantial
role for environmental security and to mitigate climate change. There has been
enough evidence that combustion of fossil fuels is leading to climate change,
bioenergy has been seeing as an alternative for decreasing the carbon cost of
energy use. In the transport sector, for example, biofuels can offer a net decrease
in CO2 emissions to atmosphere and at the same time supporting
agricultural development.

issue related to bioenergy is the conservation of the soil chemical, physical
and biological characteristics related to soil quality for the long term of
bioenergy production. Long term use of arable soils may compromise soil quality
through erosion, nutrient leaching, soil compaction, and reduction of microbial
activity. Cropping land for biomass production can have soil degradation but
can also improve soil quality. Erosion is considered a major source of soil
degradation. However, sustainable cropping systems can be applied to preserve
soils. For example, legume in rotation with perennial crops provides plant
cover and nutrients enabling soil preservation.

use of nutrients may cause environmental problems, polluting water bodies (ground
water and surface water) through nutrient leaching. Additionally, manufacture
and use of nitrogenous fertilisers are substantial element of the GHG and
energy balances of bioenergy crops. Bioenergy crops that use N fertilisers more
efficiently is most likely to have a better carbon footprint from its
production chain. Sugarcane, for example, produce high yield with 30 to 200 kg
N ha-1.