1. by the Caliph of Baghdad. Problems

1. He was slave of a slave, and the nobles of Ghori and Aibak were not prepared to accept him as their Sultan.

2. He had no concern with the tribe of Aibak.

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3. He killed Aram Shah the real successor of Aibak in order to get the throne. Hence the nobles of Labore had enthroned him.

But some modern historians do not agree to this view and they consider Iltutmish to be an independent ruler of Delhi who got the throne by his own valour and ability. They produce the following views in support of their theory:

1. He was not a usurper and there was nothing that he usurp­ed. The Turkish state wals divided and Iltutmish was a representative of noble. He was elected to the throne by them.

2. There was no law of succession. Aram Shah was a weak and lazy ruler whereas Iltutmish was-a braye and intelligent lieutenant. Hence his selection was according to the need of time.

3. He was a free man at the time of his accession.

4. He was son-in-law of Aibak who had no son, hence his claim to the throne was justified and the charge of usurping the throne does not hold.

5. He was granted recognition as Sultan by the Khalifa of Baghdad.

Dr. R. P. Tripathi has also remarked in this context, ‘ The sovereign powers of Iltutmish were based on three things. First, he was elected by the officials: second, he had the right of conquest and power to enforce obedience; third, he had been formally recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad.

Problems for Iltutmish:

The weak and brief rule of Aram Shah had given birth to rebellious tendencies among the Turkish nobles and thus it gave rise to disintegrating tendencies. Iltutmish after assuming the title of Sultan occupied the throne of Delhi.

He was the only ruler who assumed the title of Sultan. Prior to him neither Qutbuddin Aibak nor Aram Shah assumed this title.

He ruled over Badaun and the outlying district from Banaras in the east to the Shivalik hills in the west. In spite of the support of the Turkish nobles of Delhi, the accession of Iltutmish to the throne did not go unchallenged.

First of all, Tajuddin Yaldoz, the Sultan of Ghaznj, tried to impose his political supremacy by sending the royal canopy and robe of honour at the time of the accession of Iltutmish which was accepted by him as he knew that his position was not strong enough to oppose Yaldoz at this juncture.

Nasiruddin Qubacha proclaimed his independence in Sindh and Multan. He also established his control over Bhatinda, Kuhram, Sarasuti and Lahore.

Ah Mardan who recognized the supremacy of Aibak, also stop­ped sending tribute to Delhi and declared his independence.

The Rajput rulers wanted to put off the yoke of Muslim domi­nation. Jalore, Ranthambhor, Gwalior and Ajmer also declared then— independence. Doab was also against the accession of Iltutmish.

The Mongols were creating disturbances in Central Asia under the leadership of Chengiz Khan. They had devastated many Muslim kingdoms there and the danger of their attack on India was looming large.

Besides the above problems, there were many nobles who were against the accession of Iltutmish. The administrative system of the Delhi Sultanate was out of gear and needed immediate attention.

Thus at the time of his accession, Iltutmish found the throne of Delhi to be very precious indeed.

Iltutmish was a man of strong will and great courage. He endeavored his best to overcome his difficulties and first of all he took a strong step against those nobles and Amirs who had revolted against him considering him a slave of slave.

He marched against them and subjugated them. Dr. Ishwari Prasad has remarked, “Iltutmish was not a man to fall or to falter in the face of difficulties, however serious, and in grim earnestness he set himself to the task of dealing with the situation in a bold and decisive manner.

Defeat of Tajuddin Yaldoz:

Iltutmish dealt most diplomatically with Yaldoz, as he was the greatest threat to Iltutmish. No doubt, Iltutmish had to accept his supremacy at the time of his enthronement but as luck would have it, Yaldoz was defeated and driven out of Ghazni by Alauddin Muhammad Khwarizm Shah. Yaldoz took refuge in Punjab and occupied Lahore.

He also claimed his right to the throne of Delhi for he considered himself the senior most among the slaves of Ghori. Iltutmish could not tolerate it. He marched against Yaldoz and defeated him in the battle of Tarain. He was put to death in 1216 a.d. after a brief confinement in the fort of Badaun. The assassina­tion of Yaldoz enabled Iltutmish to heave a sigh of relief and it led to the final break with Ghazni. Now, in the real sense of the term, Iltutmish became the Sultan of Delhi.

War against Qubacha:

Nasiruddin Qubacha was also an ambitious slave of Ghori. He was the ruler of Uchh and Multan. After the death of Aibak, he captured some portion of Punjab and declared his independence.

Iltutmish could not tolerate his highhandedness and challenged him at the head of a large army. Iltutmish successfully drove him out of Punjab. He could not march against Sindh because of the impending attack of the Mongols on the north-west frontier. Hence Qubacha continued to rule over Multan and Uchh upto 1227.

The death of Chengiz Khan in 1227 a. d. solaced Iltutmish to a great extent and he launched another expedition against Qubacha who had gathered power and prestige during these ten years. Iltutmish sent two armies in 1228 a.d. one from Lahore to attack Multan and another from Delhi to capture Uchh.

Qubacha was terrified be this action of Iltutmish, so he ran away and took shelter in the fort of Bhakkar, situated on the bank of river Indus. Iltutmish having besieged Bhakkar asked Qubacha to surrender. Qubacha tried to conclude a treaty with Iltutmish and sent his son Malik Alauddin Bahram in order to negotiate the terms of the treaty.

Iltutmish asked for unconditional surrender. Qubacha was very much upset. He tried to escape from Bhakkar through Indus but he was drowned. Thus Iltutmish captured Multan and Uchh.