Granulation inflamed periodontal tissue that is usually removed

Granulation tissue can form in
connective tissue during the process of wound healing, chronic inflammation,
and certain pathological conditions. Granulation tissue fibroblasts from both
chronically inflamed periodontal lesions and healing wound behaved similarly.
Therefore, the chronically inflamed periodontal tissue that is usually removed
during surgery might contain stem cells.9 It was found that in
inflamed tissue, wound healing seems to be continually turned on, and the
granulation tissue does not regenerate into normal tissue.10 Hence
periodontal flap surgery was undertaken during which inflamed granulation
tissues in periodontal pockets were removed to allow healing of the
periodontium. Many patients with chronic periodontitis need more than one
surgery in the course of their treatment; the isolated stem cells from the
granulation tissues in the initial surgery may be a good source for auto
transplantation in subsequent operations. These isolated stem cells can be
stored for other medical applications in the future.11

 Clinical application of MSCs are attributed to
their important four biological properties-

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1) the ability to migrate towards
sites of inflammation following tissue injury when injected intravenously,

 2) to differentiate into various cell types,

3) to secrete multiple bioactive
molecules capable of stimulating recovery of injured cells,

 4) to inhibit inflammation and perform
immunomodulatory functions.12

MSCs are self-renewing, multipotent
progenitor cells with multilineage potential to differentiate into cell types
of mesodermal origin, such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes.13,14
Hence they have the potential to be used in tissue engineering, gene therapy,
transplants and tissue injuries. However, identifying these cells can be a
challenge8. MSCs are defined as presenting:  plastic adherent ability and absence of
definitive hematopoietic lineage markers, such as CD45, CD34, CD14, CD11b,
CD79?, CD19 and class-II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules,
specially HLA-DR; and expression of nonspecific markers CD105, CD90 and CD73.15

Our aim was to investigate the presence of stem
cells, identify them and isolate these cells to understand their characteristics
and their potential uses in regeneration.