Genetic Genetic engineering has already begun entering human

Genetic engineering, or genetic modification, is a new science surrounding the technology of changing DNA, which is the genetic code for cells. It is a science focused on discovering more about genes, and how they affect diseases, mutations, immunity, etc. Genes are sections of DNA that determine an individual’s physical and emotional traits. Due to moral concerns, the development of human genetic engineering is controversial. Recently the research in genetic profiling has increased, leading to significant achievements in genetic engineering; genetic profiling is the area of research that strives to find out what each gene does. Many organizations have realized the importance of this science and the continued advancement of it. Genetic engineering has already begun entering human society, the research for it has led to and will continue to lead to groundbreaking medical discoveries, and it can help consumers as well as professions across the board such as researchers and doctors.Through a series of labs, experiments, and journals, it becomes clearer that genetic engineering is an important factor in future human evolution that needs to be funded, and furthered developed in order for humans to continue to advance as a species. Genetic engineering has already began developing and advancing our society.Although this is a controversial and modern science, our society has already began incorporating it into the population’s lives. For example, the National Academy of Sciences has released a report, supporting the genetic modification of human embryos, stating that clinically modifying DNA base pairs in gametes and early embryos will be allowed in the near future. Having followed the emergence of CRISPR/Cas9, experts also noted that trials for certain non hereditary traits have already been attempted. (AFP International Text Wire in English, “Leading US Science Group Backs Genetically Modifying Human Embryos.”) An influential report supporting genetic modification shows the beginning of the acceptance of this science. This announcement directly states that experiments have already been done in the past, in addition to the potential of other experiments following this new announcement regarding modification in early embryos. An example of the impact genetic engineering has already had on human lives would be the case of Layla Richards. Layla Richards “was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a type of cancer that kills three quarters of the infants who contract it”, and genetic engineering saved her life. Despite receiving numerous treatments the cancer kept reappearing in her body. Desperate to find a cure, her parents allowed Waseem Qasim, a professor of cell and gene therapy at University College London, to test his newly developed cells that targeted only leukemia cells. One month after the procedure, Richards was allowed to return home. (Brown, “NEAT LITTLE PACKAGES.”) Dr. Qasim’s success has opened up a new opportunity in cancer research and is a significant victory against cancer. With the success of these targeting cells, it leads to openings for the same science applied to different types of cancer and other disease. It is a new way to treat leukemia, a disease affecting over 350,000 people in the U.S., that some patients may prefer over current treatments. Another example of a starting acceptance for this science is the British Parliament who have recently permitted mitochondrial transfer treatments, a form of genetic engineering. (Metzl “Genetically modified humans”). These mitochondrial transfer treatments “allows doctors to replace diseased mitochondria … with healthy donor mitochondria in the eggs or early-stage embryos of prospective mothers.”, preventing potential fatal mitochondrial diseases in infants and children. The British Parliament, by allowing these transfers, have shown their support for genetic engineering and allowed Britain to advance in this field and continue to discover new ways to use genetic engineering in order to help those that have incurable diseases. Genetic engineering has provided many groundbreaking discoveries in medical field. Mention briefly before, mitochondrial transfer treatments, that have now been permitted in Britain, involve replacing a damaged mitochondria with a healthy donor mitochondria in human embryos. This is done in hopes that the damaged mitochondria is destroyed, in order to be replaced by a healthy one that will duplicate and prevent mitochondrial diseases that many times result in fatalities (Metzl “Genetically modified humans”). Another example is Zhen Gu’s , a professor in biomedical engineering, research, in which he has developed “an injectable nanoparticle package that breaks down and releases insulin when it encounters high levels of sugar in the bloodstream”. (Brown, “NEAT LITTLE PACKAGES.”) While this was the original purpose, in the testing stage of these cells Gu discovered that this package could kill efficiently kill cancer cells without causing an immune response. With further testing, this could be used as a highly effective cancer treatment for those with tumors, especially for those that have had previous rejections/reactions to treatment.  Other than cancer treatment, genetic engineering has also began developing cures for previously thought incurable diseases. For example, Gang Bao, a leader of the Nanomedicine Center for Nucleoprotein Machines at Rice University, is developing a genetic cure for sickle cell anemia by changing stem cell mutations to result in healthy red blood cell production. By removing stem cells from the bone marrow, he can splice a gene segment to fix mutations and then inject the modified cells back into the bone marrow so they can produce healthy red blood cells. (Brown, “NEAT LITTLE PACKAGES”). This research is important because sickle cell anemia is an incurable disease, as of now, that affects a large range of ages. It is due to a lack of healthy red blood cells and can lead to a blockage of blood flow, infections, pain, and fatigue. This chronic illness can affect those for years or be lifelong. Genetic engineering has also made strides in general medication not directed towards any illness. Arcturus Therapeutics in San Diego, an RNA medicines company,  has developed a biodegradable lipid that wraps medicines and RNA in a loose, yarn-like bundle. “When the bundle reaches the targeted cell, the cell engulfs it, trapping it in a small sac that travels into the cell. By the time that sac breaks down, the lipid has fallen apart, releasing its medicines or RNA to go to work in the cell.” (Brown, “NEAT LITTLE PACKAGES”).  This lipid is similar to modern medicine but on a smaller scale. Since it can be designed and changed to target different types of cells, it can help those with genetic diseases. For example, this solution can help clear far buildup in veins and arteries; it can also enter the liver tissue to help assist the body function. Andre Watson, chief technology officer of Ligandal, has created a similar package with a different purpose. Andre Watson is developing a multilayer package, in which the outermost layer would target specific types of cells. Once inside the targeted cells, it would disintegrate to leave a second package containing scissor enzymes and genetic material . (Brown, “NEAT LITTLE PACKAGE”). This targets genetic diseases in particular. For cells that are malfunctioning and harming an individual because of a genetic background or a genetic mistake, this package can cut the malfunctioning or wrongly matched DNA and add new genetic material or allow the cell to repair the DNA with the correctly matched base pairs. Genetic engineering has made strides in medicine and treatments, but for those that want to prevent diseases before they exist, the Oregon National Primate Research Center, has developed a technique to genetically engineer a human egg. By removing the nucleus, the scientists would replace it with new nuclear DNA in hopes of preventing diseases carried in mitochondrial DNA.  (David “Reconstructed Egg for IVF.”). This research has recently been allowed, and targets genetic diseases and disorders. By scanning an embryo’s’ DNA, scientists can find hidden genetic diseases that may appear later in the embryo’s life. Using this technology, scientists and doctors can now replace this mistaken DNA with correct ones, in order to enable the embryos to live a fuller, healthier life. Genetic engineering can not only help consumers in medication, but help researchers, and scientists reach their discoveries easier and faster, maximizing our society’s productivity. A team of researchers with GlaxoSmithKline in Les Ulis, France have developed a way to reduce cholesterol, a prevalent factor in heart disease. They did so by using genetically modified cells that allowed them to easier pick out certain genes to test them for the desired ability of lowering cholesterol. (Christensen, “A New Way to Lower Cholesterol.”). By using genetically modified cells, the researchers were able to reach their discovery easier and faster. They used genetically engineered cells that expressed a fluorescent protein that they later used in order to test their various attempts at lowering high cholesterol. Another example of this is a research study regarding ADA-deficiency. “After ADA genes are transferred into the T-cells by genetically engineered viral vectors”, the cells began to produce the ADA enzyme leading to the amount of enzyme produced was about 25% of normal, but more than enough to correct the conditions caused by ADA-deficiency. (Grace, “Better health through gene therapy”) By using genetically engineering vectors, researchers were later able to test these cells on patients who, tested later in a year, showed normal levels of active T-cells and improved immune functions. By using genetic engineered cells, researchers are able to reach their conclusion faster and to take action based off that faster.On the contrary, bioethicists have brought up concerns such as an inequality between genetically engineered humans and those not, and safety concerns due to the much unknown in this field.  Authorities have shown their disapproval of this science and are continually discouraging it due to the dangers of it in terms of our social statuses, and the medical dangers of such. Arguing that genetic engineering can lead to misuse of this powerful tool, the House has released a bill that bans the Food and Drug Administration from funding research involving the editing of genes in a human embryo.  The National Institutes of Health has banned funding for such research as well. (King, “House takes stand on genetically modified humans.”).However, not all governments share that view.  The FDA has not directly stated their disapproval and still have the ability to allow clinical trials testing genetic engineering, while other governments, such as the British parliament, mentioned previously, have shown their support for genetic engineering. While there are safety and moral issues, because of how powerful genetic engineering is in the medical field, there are many situations where not using genetic engineering becomes a moral question. If the technology is available, would it be moral to keep it from those who need it?Genetic engineering is changing our society, starting from our medical and science fields. By providing a useful tool for researchers and scientists, and allowing more productivity between these fields, genetic modification has proved itself to be a powerful, and efficient tool and science. While there are orals involved, the science of genetic engineering is far too important in human future to avoid, because of the possibilities opened by this technology. Without allowing this science to continue to develop we as a species are preventing us from becoming more advance.