From fire and earth. Air with blood, water

From the ancient period through the Scientific Revolution, science, medicine and technology have been associated with each other due to different people, ideas and events.   In the ancient world, ancient knowledge created a connection between science, medicine and technology . The Greek Physician known as Hippocrates is recognized as one of the most significant people in medicine. Hippocrates believed the human body was made up of four humors; blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. These humors were associated with Aristotle’s four elements air, water, fire and earth. Air with blood, water with phlegm,fire with yellow bile and earth with black bile. During the time it was stated that the human body had to have equal amounts of the four humors. If a person had too much of one of the humors, they would have to eliminate it to return to equilibrium or an even amount of humors throughout the body. This was later studied by Galen, a Greek Philosopher and Physician. Galen believed the four humors was associated with the human temperament and characteristics. Blood meant you were sanguine or active. Yellow Bile mean choleric or short tempered. Black bile meant melancholic or quiet. Phlegm meant phlegmatic or relaxed. With interests in the human anatomy, Galen performed dissections and vivisections on animals like pigs to understand the human anatomy. When a person had so much of one of the humors, physicians used technical procedures to cure people. If there was a lot of blood in a person or the person was sanguine, physicians would use they bloodletting procedure to eliminate blood on the body. The initial cures would be the use of herbal medicines and teas. If that didn’t work risky surgeries with the use of sharp knives were performed, these surgeries eventually led to death. An example of connections between science of technology would be the inventions of Archimedes. Archimedes was a Greek mathematician, engineer and inventor, he invented the lever which was used to lift and move objects and he invented the screw which was used to transfer water for agriculture from one place to another. Water is essential for human life however during the Roman Empire, many people didn’t live near water sources. Aqueducts were created to transfer water to different areas. In De Architectura, Vitruvius states that aqueducts must be built and the regulations must be met. Not only were aqueducts made, Romans also created Roman roads which was primarily used for combat. These paved roads were later used to transport goods from pin A to point B.        The Middles Ages also created a connection between science, medicine and technology. People used science and technology to engineer plows, watermills and windmills to improve agriculture. Plows were created to turned the soil, with this method farmers can plants seeds and grow crops faster. Watermills and windmills were used to grind grain into flour, used as energy for mechanical purposes and used to pump water. In the medieval period, medicine was popularly practiced. Mondino de Luzzi, an Italian physician and surgeon, introduced the dissections in the medicine curriculum. During this time practicing and handling human bodies, this was seen as shameful. A person who performed surgery on bodies was known as a barber-surgeon or a demonstrator.  The barber-surgeon would perform surgeries on cadavers while the professor gives orders. This would give medical students the opportunity to witness dissections.       The Scientific Revolution was known as a logical time thus constructing a connection between science, medicine and technology.  Andreas Vesalius, a Flemish physician and author of the On the Fabric of the Human Body, demonstrated and guided dissections for the public. In his book, he presents the body in great detail by writing about the muscles, veins, organs, bones and etc. Many students were eager to learn more about the human anatomy which led to the term autopsia, this meant students would learn about the human anatomy first hand observation. As the increase of interests in the human anatomy increase, anatomy theatres for example in Padua and Leiden were created. This scientific method was created for public observations which led to more ideas and research. More ideas and research was created, however it was difficult to learn because it was almost difficult to find illustrations on interested subjects. The wealthy people had an advantage because they could hire a scribe to rewrite a book for their studies. Johannes Gutenberg, a German inventor and publisher, created the printing press which was a movable printing machine. With his creation, illustrations and information could be shared faster and easier. More scientific and technological inventions included  the compass used for expeditions and mapmaking, Leonardo’s flying machines and Ramelli book wheel.     Different people, events and ideas greatly influenced the world through science, medicine and technology.