Fatigue has been found as a cause

Fatigue has been named as a major factor for accidents in
a wide range of transportation settings such as Aviation, rail and maritime
setting. Fatigue has several forms, these forms, including mental and physical
fatigue depending on the nature of its causes. Different signs of fatigue, such
slow response and lack of attention have been identified in many accidents
(Mitler et al., 1988). Fatigue is considered as a risk factor in the air
transportation system because it impairs memory, concentration, decision
making, reaction time, and eye fixation (Jackson & Earl, 2006).

aviation is one of the safest and fastest transportation
systems.  According to Evan (2003), the
expansion of the air travel, operational demands and the higher-level aviation
technology have all advanced and they maybe result in increased levels of pilot
fatigue and error rates (Evans, 2003). Fatigue may build up slowly over several
working days. Or, quickly after hard physical or mental works.

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One of the major factors in air transportation systems
accident causation is the effects of fatigue on pilots, but the contribution of
fatigue to accidents is often underestimated in official reporting. Fatigue has
been found as a cause in many air transportation accidents and is a continuing
problem affecting pilot’s performance (Jackson & Earl, 2006).  The critical factor, yet is not what causes
the fatigue, but rather the negative effect of fatigue on the pilot ability to
perform tasks. Several studies in the aviation context have revealed that
fatigue has diverse and complex causes (e.g., insufficient or irregular sleep time,
irregular work/rest cycles, crossing time zones) (Petrilli et al., 2006).

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) reports
showed increasing concern over the long hours flight.  NTSB found that fatigued pilots with up to 20
hours awakening time are more likely to make errors (Ariznavarreta et al.,
2002). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA’s) reports also
showed that 21% of reported aviation incidents were fatigue related
(Jackson& Earl, 2006).  Confidential
Human Factors Incident Reporting Programmed (CHFIR) reports showed that 30 % of
the problems which have a negative impact on flight safety attributed to pilot
fatigue (Ariznavarreta et al., 2002). To date, fatigue still one of the major factors
which impair the physical and cognitive pilot performance.

According to Goode (2003), the number of accidents per
pilot is highly correlated to the length of duty periods and fatigue level.
According to Caldwell (2005), the costs associated with fatigue are tremendous,
both in terms of money and the loss of life. The estimated cost of a single
major flight accident can exceed $500 million. Furthermore, using official
data, Caldwell (2005) discovered that in at least 8% of aviation accidents,
fatigue was involved. Caldwell (2005) found that fatigue was negatively
affected the pilot’s ability to concentrate and make appropriate decisions and
the capacity to analyze complex processes (Avers and Johnson, 2011). Several
studies have also identified fatigue related factors as major causes of
aviation accidents. 

Considering the direct relation between pilot fatigue and
accidents, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was introduced and
enforcing strict rules about flight pilot duty and rest requirements and
regulations (FAA, 2011). The objective of the study is to assess and compare
fatigue during the single flight segment and a multi flight segment (takeoffs
and landings). Specifically, this study will detail the factors associated with
fatigue among pilots. In more details, this investigation is to understand the
relationship between fatigue level and ?ight segments. The main purpose is to
address this issue by analyzing collected data from six pilots during perform
their tasks.  The data will be obtained
using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Samn- Perelli (SP). Subjective
Fatigue Check and a 10-minute Psycho Motor Vigilance Test (PVT) and OSPAN might
provide reliable and valid measurement of fatigue.