Essay on the Genghis Khan Invasion of India

Mangbarni married the daughter of Khokhar chief Rai Khokhar of Salt Range and invaded Sindh against Qubacha. Iltutmish heaved a sigh of relief. As the Mongols were not accustomed to bear the scorching heat of the Indian summer, they went back towards Central Asia and Mangbarni also left for Khurasan in 1224 a.d.

Thus the impending danger of Mongol invasion on India could be averted due to cleverness of Iltutmish. However, he did not plunge in the politics of Sindh or Punjab so long as Chengiz Khan was alive.

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Conquest of Bihar and Bengal:

At the time of accession of Iltutmish to the throne of Delhi, Ali Mardan was ruling in Bengal. He was a person of cruel nature and Khalji nobles were-fed up with his oppressive rule, so they assassinated him. Husamuddin Iwaz Khalji was elevated to the position of Sultan. He, later on, assumed the title of Ghiasuddin Azam, captured Bihar and realized tribute from the neighboring kingdoms such as Jajnagar, Tirhut and Kamrupa. As Iltutmish was engaged with the problem of the north-west, he could not pay proper attention towards the affairs of Bengal.

As soon as his position was secured in the North West, he direc­ted his attention towards Bengal. Ghiasuddin knowing his own limitations did not fight against Iltutmish and surrendered Iltutmish appointed Alauddin Jani, his Governor in Bihar in 1225 a.d and returned to Delhi. But just after the departure of Iltutmish. Ghias­uddin turned out Alauddin and recaptured Bihar.

Thereupon, Nasiruddin Mahmood, the eldest son and Governor of Avadh was directed to launch an expedition against him and he defeated and assassinated Ghiasuddin in 1226 a.d Iltutmish appointed his son Nasiruddin Mahmood, the Viceroy of Bihar and Bengal but his sudden death resulted in another revolt in Bengal under the leadership of Balka Khalji who asserted independence.

Iltutmish had to march against him in 1229 a.d Balka Khalji was killed in, the battlefield and Iltutmish appointed two separate Governors in Bihar and Bengal in order to keep an effective control over these provinces.

Conflict with Rajputs and Hindus of Doab:

Although the rule of the Muslims was established in India, after the death of Aibak, the Rajputs made tremendous efforts to throw off the yoke of Muslim hegemony. They tried their best to drive the foreigners away from their motherland. During the reign of Aibak Kanauj, Banaras and Gwalior were recovered and the army of the Turks was turned out of Rajputana.

As Iltutmish remained busy in solving the problem of the north-west and that of the Turkish nobles, he could not pay attention towards the Rajputs in the first fifteen years but in 1226 a. d. he launched a powerful expedition against the Rajputs of Ranthambhor and Mandsor was recovered from Chauhans and Parmars respectively.

The Chauhan ruler of Jalore ‘also accepted the supremacy of Iltutmish. Later on, Ajmer, Bayana and Sambhar were conquered after bloody clashes. By the year 1210-31 a.d. Jodhpur and Gwalior were also subjugated.

Iltutmish could not succeed against the Guhilots of Nagada and Chalukyas of Gujarat. In 1234-35 a.d. Iltutmish attacked Malwa and plundered Bhilsa and Ujjain. He also destroyed the temple of Mahakal at Ujjain.

Iltutmish’s eldest son Nasiruddin Mahmood was in charge of the expedition launched against the Gangetic valley and the province of Badaun. Kanauj and Banaras were captured from the Hindu. Katehar, i.e., Rohilkhand was conquered after a prolonged struggle. Many Turkish soldiers had to sacrifice their lives in this conflict.