Educational History of Soviet Russia:
At first education was under the State and Church. First of all Peter the Great recognised the state responsibility over education. In 1633, 50 school boards were established. Primary and secondary schools were reorganised. Catherine II extended state control and administration over education. Women education was started in 1764.
In 1825, two year course in district schools, four year course in provincial schools and six universities were established. Nicholas I introduced military discipline in schools.
The study of logic was stopped. Nationality, despotism and religion were emphasised.
Alexander II introduced reforms between 1855-1881; He opened women’s training schools in 1863 and ordered for universal education in 1864. Rural education was developed.
Restrictions were imposed on universities. Zestov schools were established. Religious educations were at its peak in 1902. Students who protested were jailed.
In 1905 revolution began and the public was reorganised against the Czar. In 1917, Alexander Kerensky was deposed. Union government was established under Lenin and Trotsky. Education felt the political and economic impact.
The communist government enriched various languages and gave scripts to certain languages which had none. An attempt was made to spread literacy. A plan was made to educate farmers and labourers as a result of industrial revolution. Russian language was made a medium for propagating communist doctrines.
The whole country was distributed under 15 educational regions. Each region was placed under a curator who was appointed by the minister. The curator appointed inspectors of schools and teachers.
Study of communist doctrines was made compulsory. Four year primary education was made compulsory. Secondary education was made free. Children’s Homes were established. Polytechnics were established.
On August 14, 1930, the union government made four year curriculum for rural children and seven year curriculum for industrial towns compulsory. Arrangement was made for technical education and research work.
Admission-examinations write introduced for higher education. School buildings were repaired. Stalin’s first five year plan succeeded. General and cultural education was also emphasised. A separate culture university was established. School attendance rules were framed.
In 1941, due to the German invasion during the Second World War many teachers and students were enlisted into the army. A system was started to award gold and silver medals and certificates to the meritorious students. Teachers were awarded medals for contribution to cultural education and national economy.