In War, for the envelopments of vocational and

In order to get efficient teachers Short-term training courses were introduced and untrained archers were also given teaching assignments. Shifts were introduced in the schools. Soon arrangements were made for le training of untrained teachers.

But the Second World War needed the training of teachers. After the War, for the envelopments of vocational and industrial education, the necessity of teachers was again felt. The system of compulsory id free education also directed the attention of the government on teacher education.

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Pre-Primary Teacher Education:

For this stage generally, there is a three year curriculum, us training system is divided into sixteen parts. These parts e completed in 175 hours in one year. There are independent training centres for nursery and kindergarten teachers.

In is training the subjects taught are history, hygiene, physical education, psychology, history of education, reading method, leech-style, story-telling, nature-study, music and painting The researches done at this stage are also brought to the practice of the teacher.

Primary School Teacher Education:

There are teacher institutes for elementary teachers providing three year course. The graduates of class VII may be admitted to this course. Municipal boards in towns and cities and certain bodies in rural areas arrange for this education. The regional departments of education exercise full control over these.

Teachers do practice teaching in training schools. Lecture method is the basic system of teaching. Each trainee has to acquire proficiency in some musical instrument. In addition, he has to learn history, geography, arithmetic, Russian and regional language, nature-study, and psychology, art of teaching, physical education, music and painting.

Junior High School Teacher Education:

The Institute provides training to junior high school teachers. Graduates of class X may be admitted to this course. The trainees have to learn physical education, health education, psychology and pedagogy.

The trainee has to specialise in the teaching method of the subject also. The entire curriculum is divided into three parts. In the first part one has to learn mathematics and physics, in the second part Russian language and history and in the third part chemistry, biology and geography. Each Institute of Teacher Training has a model school where practice teaching is done.

The Secondary School Teacher Education:

There is a Secondary Education Institute for preparing high school teachers. It has a four year curriculum. It is of graduation standard. The minimum qualification for admission is high school certificate or admission certificate examination for higher education. In the first year of the course there is theoretical teaching.

In the second and third years, practical work is also included along with the theoretical ones. Regional language is the medium of instruction. The study of Russian language is compulsory.

The curriculum is divided into three parts. The first and second part includes teaching of professional subjects and the third part generally consists of practice teaching.

Under the professional subjects are included pedagogy, educational development, teaching method and psychology. In another group known as the socio-philosophical group, there are history, Russian language and literature, and political economy.

This group, too, is compulsory. In the third part the student teacher has to specialise in the teaching of some subjects.

For semi-trained teachers there is a short-time teaching course. After passing this course the teacher is given a teaching diploma. The duration of this short time course is one year, and students having passed high-school are admitted to it.

For training lady-teachers, class XI is attached to the high school. In this class, teaching method is taught to the teachers. Women, after having passed this class are appointed as teachers in primary schools.

In-Service Training:

For the teachers already teaching in some schools, there is a training programme. This programme is of two kinds. The first is called refresher training. Under this programme the teacher is acquainted with the latest researches in the field of education.

The second programme is for semi-trained or untrained teachers. Such persons after passing the second programme are given teaching certificates.

For various districts a particular place is selected for in- service training. In each district there is a bureau of education which provides educational information’s and counseling. The teachers in the rural areas are greatly benefited by this arrangement. Debates, lectures, exhibitions and teaching models are also organised for the benefit of such teachers.

The High School training institution in cities provide in- service training. Some of them offer a two years evening course and organise seminars, conferences, exhibitions and debates for the benefit of teachers.

There is a system of correspondence training for in-service teachers. The Education Ministry and some teachers’ training departments organise the correspondence course. This course also serves trained women teachers.