Dr. Ambedkar studied the Hindu society extensively before
beginning his battle against untouchability .
untouchability was deep rooted in india from time immemorial and the
condition of untouchables were very much stagnant. They were even not included
in varna system.DR. Ambedker who himself belong to mahar jati faced problem so he wanted to eradicate this
awful system.He was a great scholar as much as a man of action. In his writings, Ambedkar made a
decorous attempt to demonstrate the framework of untouchability and elucidated its
birthplace so that his battle of equality for these people boost up. In his attempt to remove this class based
society he signed poona pact. The poona pact refers to the agreement between
Dr. Ambedker and Gandhi signed on 24th September 1932 at Yarwada
central Jail . it was signed by Madan
Mohan Malviya , Dr. Ambedker and some Dalit leaders of that time to break the
fast of Gandhiji who was undertaken by Gandhiji
to annul the communal award.
TERMS OF THE PACT
There shall be
seats reserved for the depressed class in general election.
Seats in the
provincial legislature were as follows
number of seats reserved for the provinces were 30 for Madras, 8 for Punjab, 15
for Bombay with Sindh, 20 for the Central Provinces, 18 for Bihar and Orissa,
30 for Bengal, 7 for Assam and 20 for the United Provinces. So, in total there
were 148 reserved seats.
each of these seats, the members of the Depressed Classes who could vote
would form an electoral college. This Electoral College would elect a
panel of four candidates who belong to the Depressed Classes. These
candidates would be elected on the basis of single vote. Four candidates
getting the highest number of votes would be
these four candidates would stand in the election for the assembly along
with the general candidates where the general electorate would vote. The
members of the Depressed Classes hence got a ‘double vote’ since they
could vote under the general electorate also.
in the Central Legislature, the same principle of joint electorate and
reserved seats was to be followed.
the Central Legislature, 19% of the seats would be reserved for the
system would continue for ten years unless a mutual agreement consents to
terminate it earlier.
representation of the Depressed Classes would be ensured by all means.
would be discriminated against on the basis of caste on matters regarding
election to the local bodies or in public services appointments.
certain sum of money from the educational grant would be allotted for the
education of the Depressed Classes in all provinces.
The Confrence passed two resolutions:
This convention confirms the
Poona agreement arrived among the leaders of
Hindus and Depressed class
on September 24 and trusts the British
authorities that they will withdraw its choice of creating separate electorates in
the Hindu community and accept the settlement
in full. The conference urges that quick move is made by the administration in
order to empower Mahatma Gandhi to break
his fast before it becomes too late.
The Conference settles that
from this time onwards, among Hindus, nobody will abe viewed as an untouchable by reason of his
birth to the world and the individuals who have been so respected up to this
point will have an indistinguishable rights from alternate Hindus with respect
to the utilization of open wells, open streets and other open organizations.
This privilege should have statutory acknowledgment of the principal
opportunity and might be one of the most punctual demonstrations of the Swaraj
GANDHI VS AMBEDKAR
But Ambedkar denounced the poona pact next day. He
said in his book “WHAT CONGRESS AND GANDHI
HAVE DONE TO UNTOUCHABLES” which was published in 1945:
There was nothing noble in the fast.
It was a foul and dirty act. The fast was not for the advantage of the
Untouchables. It was against them and was the most noticeably awful type of
compulsion against powerless individuals to surrender the sacred shields of
which they had been had under the Prime Minister’s Award and consent to live on
the leniency of the Hindus. It was evil act. By what means can the untouchables
see such a man as legitimate and earnest?
“The Poona Pact is thus fraught with mischief. It
was accepted because of the coercive fast of Mr.Gandhi and because of assurance
given at the time that the Hindus will not interfere in the election of
The communal awardgave the
untouchables two advantages:-
a settled standard of seats
to be chosen by Separate Electorate of Untouchables and to be filled by people having
a place with the Untouchables;
two fold vote, one to be
utilized through independent electorates and the other to be utilized as a part
of the General Electorates. Presently, if the Poona Pact expanded the settled
quantity of seats it additionally took away the privilege to do the twofold
This expansion in seats can never be
regarded to be a pay for the loss of the twofold vote. The second vote given by
the Dalts was a precious benefit. It esteem as a political weapon for past
retribution. The voting rights of the untouchables in every electorate are
double to at that point. With this voting quality it was to be utilized as a
part of the race of rank Hindu hopefuls, the untouchables would have been in a position
to decide, if not to direct, the issue of the General decision. No standing
Hindu applicant could have set out to disregard the untouchable in his
supporters or be unfriendly to their interests.
Gandhiji looked at the national integration of communal decisions and the attack on Indian nationalism. His view was that it is dangerous for both Hindus and Dalits. He said that no arrangement has been made to improve the social condition of the dalit class. Once the backward and the downtrodden classes have been given a separate community status, the issue of elimination of homelessness will be overturned and the process of reform in the Hindu society will be blocked. He clarified that the most dangerous aspect of the electoral division is that it ensures the untouchables will always remain untouchable. In the name of security of the interests of Dalits, neither the seats in the legislatures or government services are required to be reserved nor do they have to create separate communities. But the most important need is to overthrow the evil of assassination from society. In the period of his imprisonment, he formed ‘All India Ashaprishita Anti League’ in September 1932 and in January 1933 he started publication of a weekly weekly Harijan. After release from jail, he came to Satyagrah Ashram Wardha. Sabarmati Ashram, Gandhiji had left in 1930 and promised After getting Swaraj, they will return to Sabarmati Ashram (Ahmedabad). On November 7, 1933 Gandhi started his ‘Harijan Yatra’ from Wardha. From November 1933 to July 1934 Gandhi traveled the entire country and traveled about 20 thousand kilometers. Through his travel, Gandhiji also undertook the task of gathering funds at the place ‘Harijan Sevak Sangh’, a organization established by himself.