2. proceedings. 3. The wrong-doer of giving

2. Giving false evidence, fabricating false evidences, etc., are mainly connected with the judicial proceedings.

3. The wrong-doer of giving false evidence makes this offence after an oath before the Court.

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4. The offence of giving false evidence is done openly, that too before the Court.

5. It may relate to any kind, i.e., document, statement, etc.

6. The object of the wrong-doer is to win the case by giving false evidence.

7. It expresses general intention.

8. This offence is committed by a person who is legally bound by an oath to state the truth.

9. Giving false statement need not be on any material point.

10.There should be a proceeding being conducted in the case of false evidence.

11.Illustrations: [Write illustrations of Sec. 191.]


1. Forgery, counterfeit, etc. are explained in Chapter-XVIII (Ss. 463-489). These offences relate to Documents and to Property Marks. Forgery is defined in Sees. 463 & 464.

2. The offences of forgery, counterfeit are mainly connected with public life.

3. There is no necessary to take oath before committing forgery. It is done secretly.

4. The offence of forgery is generally done secretly.

5. It mainly relates with the documents.

6. The object of the wrong-doer to get the property illegally.

7. It expresses particular intention.

8. This is not necessary in the case of forgery.

9. Forgery to a document is the material point.

10.Such a proceeding need not be in existence in the case of forgery.

11.Illustrations: [Write illustrations of Sees. 463 & 464.]