Design

Introduction

This research paper mainly covers six major areas which include fashion designer, makeup artist, film director, film producer, costume designer and production designer. Under each section, the paper pays close attention to the role, job description, career path, formal qualification and the hierarchy of each position.

Fashion designer/ design house

A fashion designer is a person is who comes up with different styles of clothing. Some fashion designers may decide to concentrate their efforts in one special area like children wear, school uniform wear, men’s wear, foot wear, sports wear among others. Other fashion designers may deal in more than one area of item designing. Due to the improved technology, a design can be ready for sale within a few weeks (Nilgin, 2006, p. 200-206)

The scope of fashion design entails high speed production, ready to wear and haute couture. High speed production involves production of garments in large quantities; this is an area that is commercial and heavily driven by media. Celebrity cat walks, business trends and seasonal patterns are factors that highly influence this area. Ready to wear garments are normally produced in small quantities, by designers who are well established.

The main duties incorporated in fashion design are varied from one designer to the other because the specific tasks depend on the working environment the designer is located in. However, the main duties include:

Visualizing or creating an idea and then designing a product using hands or computerized machines.
Staying up dated of new fashion trends that are coming in the market and the new varieties of colours, shapes and fabrics.
Developing and planning ranges
Working hand in hand with the team members like fore casters and buyers to come up with new products that meet the customer’s needs.
Working in corporation with the production, sales and buying departments to make sure that the products suit the consumer, price and market points.
Looking for, choosing, and purchasing fabrics. He or she shapes and makes a new product
Learning current market designs for massive production
Making sample garment patterns and overseeing the coming up of the same
Production supervision
Undertaking supplier and consumer negotiations
Being in charge of promotions, budget and other activities of the business especially when working as a designer who is self employed

There is no single universal career path for a fashion designer. Every designer goes through a unique path depending on where he or she is located. A designer may move from being an assistant designer to becoming an associate designer. From an associate designer, one may become a fashion director. One important thing to note is that each new level comes with higher responsibilities, higher pay and even higher challenges. Each position is unique in it self (Yongyan, 2009, p. 70-73)

For one to become a fashion designer, formal training in fashion design is required. This could be a certificate, diploma or degree in fashion desighs. For self employed designers, a combination of this degree with business related courses like marketing is important. Fashion designers should also possess a strong esthetic taste, communication skills, ability to solve problems, computer skills among other relevant skills.

The role of fashion design reports to the design director or its equivalent in the organization. The role can be based in a big manufacturing firm, a tailoring shop, an out side space or even the house of the designer.

Fashion designers watch the market for upcoming trends and social media is one important promotion tool in the market. All other junior staffs in the same department like tailors report to the fashion designer of the organization.

The fashion designers have to keep on monitoring the trends on the market in order to keep up to date. The fashion designer should be creative enough just to observe the new makes in the market and effectively come up with such.

References

Yongyan, L. 2009. Journal: A study on the application of elements of ethnic Dress in Modern Fashion Design. Canadian science research, vol. 5. Issue 2

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&vid=13&hid=106

Nilgin, Y.2006. Journal: dialog on the outside, looking in: the iconography of the outsider in the contemporary fashion. The journal of cloth and culture, vol 4. Issue 2

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=17&hid=106&sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=2237908

Makeup artist

A makeup artist is an artist who works on the human body in the modeling industry by applying prosthetics and makeup. These are normally meant for productions in the industry of modeling. Such productions include: Theaters, fashion, film, television, magazine to name but a few. The basic job description of a makeup artist is applying different forms of prosthetics and makeup on the human body.

There are many kinds of media that a makeup artist uses in his or her work and these include: makeup, paint, prosthetics, hair, molds and casts. These things are used by the makeup artist to enhance the appearance and beauty of a human body. This creates a new effect that is fantasy based (Bernice, p. 13-16)

Professional training is required in makeup artistry. This involves going to college where one learns the makeup techniques and upon successful completion, he or she may be awarded a degree, diploma or certificate. There are short courses that are meant for makeup alone but a full aesthetics, cosmetology or beauty can be awarded a license of operating in the given field (Conway, 2004, p. 4-11)

Makeup work can be carried out in retail makeup stores, salons and spas, on specific event venues like weddings and award shows, makeup counter found in large stores, photography studios, run away fashion shows, live dramatic event like theater, magazine photo shoots, television and film sets or even it can be done freelance.

While beginning in this career, you can start by working in a spa, salon or even a store for the sole purpose of gaining some experience. One needs to nurture his or her technique in the real world first before growing a good portfolio. Once the techniques are natured, he or she can begin specializing into specific areas.

The position of the makeup artist normally reports to the project producer but this may vary depending on the nature of the production and the specific organization. Any staffs working under the makeup artist report to him or her direct.

The role of the make up artist can be done in a saloon, make up shop or even on freelance basis of going to the venue of the weekend. Many make up artists keep up to with the market by watching programmes and attending other events that exposes them to more skills.

References

Bernice, E. T. journal: Artist or nonartist: a comparative study. Journal of personality: Mar 58, vol 26. Issue 1: Blackwell publishing

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=19&hid=21&sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=8930980

Conway, J. 2004, make-up artistry. Spain: Harcourt education limited

http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=buCV40tP5V0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=make-up+artistry&hl=en&ei=7qVWTp64KpDMswbe482aCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Film director

This is a person who guides the film crew and actors in the process of producing a film. This is a key position in the production process.

A film director has a job description of working under a film producer by overseeing all the aspects that are creative for the film that is being produced. They have the duty of turning the script into shots that are sequential, directing the film’s tone and directing audience’s benefits from watching the film.

They also decide the angle of the camera, effects of the lens and lighting, setting of the design together with the director of the design and in helping in the recruitment of the members of the crew that are key (Louisa, 2010, p. 66-70).

The director works hand in hand with the crew and cast to ensure that there is shape to the film. Directors also help in financing, writing and editing of the film. They organize the moves of the actors, and this is vital because it informs the actors of how they are going to present them selves on the scene. They use story boards and view finders while undertaking their roles as directors.

Post-production is another key role played by the director. He or she works with the editor and gives direction on final images, color and grading. In real sense, the director adds quality to the film.

As a film director, one doesn’t need formal education to start a career in the field. Many directors start by employing their creativity in making home movies and short films. However, there are courses of film directing that a film director can attend in order to perfect his or her skills. Such courses range from certificate all the way to a Master of Arts in film directing (Bernard, 2010. p.28-48)

A film director can begin his or her career as home movie director, and after acquiring relevant education and graduation, he or she can grow the career into a professional by directing television programmes, music videos and commercials. Due to the high competition in the field, most directors seek higher education in order to develop a good portfolio. There are several schools world wide that offer such training.

It is important to that career growth for film directors are not definite because it varies with how and where one begins from. This position mainly reports to the project and any junior staff working directly under the film director reports to him/her direct.

The role of the film director is based at the venues where the film is being prepare and produced. The film director has to move all round and observe all the proceedings by all stake holders to make sure that everything is going on well. Feel directors keep up to date with the market by involving in various activities that give them a wide range of experience.

References

Bernard, I. 2010. Journal: The other Percy Nash: theatrical interludes in the life of a film pioneer. Theater note book. Vol. 64, issue 1

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=21&hid=125&sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=53071794

Louisa, W. S 2010. Journal: My motion is to depict people I can identify with; China perspectives, vol 2010. Issue 1

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=21&hid=14&sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=49174334

Film producer

This is a person who delivers after overseeing a project of a film to all the relevant parties. He or she must ensure that the vision, mission and integrity of a film are maintained in the production process. Film producers may assist in supporting the monetary requirements of the task. The producer takes part in the entire process of making a film right away from the inception, developing the film, completing of the task and delivering the ready product (Madeline, 2009, p. 359-362)

A producer initially obtains the right of doing the specific task of film making and takes charge of the entire process including controlling, supervising and coordinating the main tasks of the project. The main duties include interviewing and employing most important positions like the film or casting leaders. Producers may act as signatories to the union and in many instances they appear to be the chief of staff (Cleve, 2000. p. 2-3)

There are several institutions that offer professional training in film production. The courses offered are meant to offer the producers the relevant skills needed in the working world. An experienced producer may run in his or her career from a film and video producer to an executive producer or even a production assistant.

Film producers report directly to the stake holders or owners of the given project. They play the role of a C.E.O of the project. All the staffs under the project report to him, and if the project fails he bears the highest lose because he is like contracted to carry on the task.

The main role of the producer is based in the producing studio, but he also has to visit other venues to make sure that quality is assured. Producers can also keep to date with the market by going for higher education in order to gain more production skills.

References

Cleve, B. 2000. Film production management. Burlington: Elsevier science and technology.

http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=fZAPnhqh_WgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=film+production+management&hl=en&ei=DadWTpHfOojPsga-zrGvCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Madelaine, H. 2009. Journal; Interview with film producer: Erick Kabera. Peace review: July – Sept 2009. Volume 21. Issue 3

Custom designer

A custom designer is a person in the production team or stage, and his or her main responsibility is designing costumes meant for the production. Some costume designers design both scenic and costume elements. A costume designer may work hand in hand with the director, lighting director, scene director, makeup designer and wig or hair maker.

The main goal of the costume designers is to try and enhance the personality of the character and also to make a matching scene of color, social status or period change by dressing and visual design, body enhancing and distorting, the costume director must take keen notice of the washable and durable state of the garment especially in runs that are extended. In ensuring that the whole production design works well, the costume director work hand in hand with other role payers (Everline, 2006, p. 651-672)

In costume design, the specific designs are initially presented in form of sketches before they can finally be approved. Accessories like actors wear, hats, foot wear, and head dresses among others may be included in the costume. Some other unusual wears may also be included in this design including things like under wears, masks, wigs, makeup, animal suits among others.

The job description of costume designers include insuring that: they get the best styles, fabrications and fabrics that suit the production, achievement of the design concepts, conceptualize the best style by studying the story, window shopping to find costumes that are ready made, sketching before making the real costumes, be in charge of the costume’s visual approach, costume lay out and draft development, work together with his team that makes the actual costumes and facilitate the dressing rehearsals.

Costume designing is a professional career that calls for one to enroll for a certificate, diploma or degree course in costume design. This exposes the designer to the relevant knowledge needed in the field.

The career path varies and as one grows it may range from starting as a design assistant to a costume designer (Thomas, 2004, p. 2-10). One may end up as a regional designer or specialize in specific fields like Television Theater among others.

The custom designer reports to the producer and all the subordinate staffs working under him or her account to him. The role of the custom designer can be based in an office or even the house of the designer. The designer keeps up to date with the market through exposure to relevant programs or events or touring various cultures to learn more about them.

References

Thomas, S. 2004. Journal; Applying a sociological perspective architecture and other design fields. Sociological view points; fall volume 20.

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=26&hid=14&sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=16011773

Everline, L. 2006. Evolution of fractal shapes for artists and designers. International journal of artificial intelligence tools. Vol 15, issue 4

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Production designer

A production designer is a person who is in charge of an event that has been filmed. These may include music videos, advertisements, or Television programmes. These are the creative figures in the project. They collaborate with the producer and director to choose the style and settings of the production.

Program directors show direction to other departmental staffs so as to bring out the real feeling of the production.

Their main duties entails: script reading to notice the factors that need some visual attention, doing a consideration of the production brief, discussing production concepts and requirements with the producer and director, budget monitoring and planning, researching on history, background and production design, providing models and scale drawing, providing ideas for equipment, shopping for potential locations and studios, looking for required effects for researching and materials, disseminating information to the rest of the production team, recruiting and overseeing the art department team, making list of property, directing available constructions, liaising with all the directors and attending all the meetings that are in progress as production continues (Fredrick, 2009, p. 671-692)

For one to be a qualified production designer, he or she has to have the relevant professional training in the same field. Apart from acquiring formal education, a background in visual Arts, fine Arts, Art history or Art appreciation is so relevant to this position.

The career path of the production designer could be to acquire training in to be a journalist in print, television or radio research, senior researcher, assistant producer and finally director of production (Frank, 2010, p. 495-504).

This position reports to the producer and the production staffs worming under this position reports to production designer directly. The producer designer role is based in the producing studio and the best way for them to keep up to date with the market is by going for higher education in order to gain more skills.

References

Fredrick, G. 2009.Journal; How do cultural producers make creative decisions? Lessons from the catwalk. Social forces, vol 88. Issue 2

http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=28&hid=14&sid=728ef21b-8e7a-4648-a10f-f0c6cf7b13aa%40sessionmgr4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=47617800

Frank, V. R. 2010.Journal: User-producer interaction in web site development: motives, modes and misfits. Journal for the American society for information science and technology. March 2010, vol 61, issue 3

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Conclusion

After going through all this, it has come out apparently that in any production industry, all the four positions have to collaborate in order to make a perfect production. The positions are also very important in the production process and hence they require trained and experienced professionals to run them.