Data was obtained from the sample of 400 students from both public
and private institutes. The collected data was arranged and tabulated. This data
was analysed by using SPSS software. With the help of this statistic software,
data was investigated through descriptive statistic. Mean, Standard Deviation,
Independent Sample t. test was used.
Permissions were obtained from the head of the institutions to
administer the questionnaire on the participants. Informed consent of the
participants was also sought before the administration of the questionnaire.
The data was collected from TVET students living in Lahore District which were
selected by using convenient sampling technique. The adapted liker scale was
administered to the participants by researcher personally or with the help of
classroom teacher. After establishing a rapport and developing a comfortable
environment with respondents, the participants were briefed about the
The opinion of initial instrument from students were get hold and
were bring into play for the modification of concluding questionnaire. Eight
items were added from the initial draft and thus final questionnaire consisted
of 38 statements. Then final copies of instrument distributed among students of
selected institutes. All the questionnaire was completely filled by the
students. The rate of return was 100%.
The improved form of instrument was administered on small scale for
pilot testing.80 students were selected as sample for this piloting and the
scale was administered to this sample. These students were selected from 4
institutes of Punjab district Lahore.40 students from public sector and 40
students from private sector. After collecting and analysis of data the
reliability coefficient was measured using Cronbach’s Alpha that was .93 which is acceptable.
Literature review, expert opinion and observational studies provide
information about the tools that have been used to collect the data. To ensure
the validity of instrument 5 education experts were selected conveniently and
the scale was given to them to review and point out any mistake or ambiguity in
the instrument. They reviewed the instrument and pointed out mistakes which
were improved under their instructions.
Validation of instrument