Child exploitation is a form of trafficking that is likely to be hazardous to the health and/or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development of children and can impede their education. Traffickers and pimps often focus on victims between the ages of 12 to 14 years old, the market demand for young victims, as they argued. The gullibility makes the children and young kids more vulnerable to be victims of trafficking (Walters and Davis, 2011). Around the world, especially in developing countries, child victims are sacrificed to sex trafficking for short-term financial gains (Leth, 2005). Horrendous conditions make the child human trafficking tasks is easy. It was reported that one in three teens on the street will be lured into prostitution within 48 hours of leaving home (Mitchell et al., 2010). Thus, through the world, over one million children are trafficked for sex trade.
Child victims are subject to abuse from their traffickers, as they consider them are only useful in the sex industry for a short period of time, subsequently, they are prone to sturdy violence from those involved in trafficking (Newman, 2011). Children may be dropped when they are no longer attractive or young enough, further victimized in other ways or, in some cases, killed to prevent disclosure. This discarding of “useless victims” victims creates a need for new prostitutes and children- an endless cycle of supply and demand. (Walters and Davis, 2011).
In the United States, for example, minors under the age of 14 represent 11 percent of minors sold for sexual purposes. Victims between the ages of 14 to 17 in the United States are the largest percentage of juvenile victims who are sold for sexual activities (Mitchell et al., 2010).
Other than sex trafficking, child may be exploited in work environment, where some industries are considered attractive for them, once they enter the industry, they experience numerous types of exploitations start with the right to choose what suit them, ending with the wages they get. For instance, tourism industry attracts 218 million children (Sharma et al., 2012), the characteristics of tourism employment impose them to work for long hours under pressure circumstances at very low wages and this definitely affects their lives negatively (see Chapter 2, Child labor).