Chemiluminescent overrepresented in protein expression when rapid uncontrolled

Chemiluminescent techniques
are accredited with significantly and given that cancer accounts for a quarter
of the mortality rate in Ireland today, with men in general facing a greater
probability of being diagnosed with any form of cancer at 33.33% compared to
women where the probablity of being diagnosed with cancer currently stands at
25% (14). Diagnostic agents have been gradually improved over the years
to ensure greater probability in surviving cancer especially whilst in the
early stages. It is known that certain ‘indicators (15) in the cancerous growth, one can determine to what extent the tumour
has progressed and if so, indeed if metastasis has begun to spread to tissues
both proximal and distal to the centre of the tumour. These so-called molecular
markers are employed in such a manner given that they are overrepresented in
protein expression when rapid uncontrolled growth of cells are observed in the
form of a malignant tumour (16). It is noted from literature that the detection of abnormally high
concentrations of reactive oxygen species appear to be a common feature in most
forms of cancer to spur on its growth and proliferation via accelerated
metabolism which are often but not always radical in nature (17) and provide a basis for detection methods. A loss of excess
energy must be experienced to provide a greater stability to the molecule.  Free Radicals and
Cell Chemiluminescence (18) states that “CL intensity is directly proportional to a steady state
concentration of the radicals responsible for luminescence irrespective the
activity of these radicals.” Chemiluminescent techniques display a great
propensity to respond, exhibit an ease in administration and provides ability
to diagnose cancer at an early stage(19). A prominent example exists for a particular cancer of the ovaries in
which a molecular marker known as CA-125 has been uncovered (20) and in of itself is not sufficient for early stage detection but may
be used in conjunction with other molecular markers, of which are protein in
nature, to allow for maximum efficacy(21). 

Photodynamic therapy
is becoming a common approach and will continue to do so in the future given it
appears to offer fewer side effects than more traditional approaches of
chemotherapy given it employs fewer toxic side effects (22). It
works by injection of a photosensitizer into the body which will react at a
certain selected wavelength by monochromator to correspond to a certain type of
tumour. After a period of a day to 3 days, the photosensitizer such as silicon
or gold nanoparticulate material remains only in cancerous cells (23) which then undergoes selective photon exposure. It results in the
causation of subsequent cascade of reaction in the transfer of energy from
ground state molecular oxygen in form 3O2  to 1O2 (24).  This
allows for the destruction of the cancerous growth in one of three ways of
which may occur by direct attack from active oxygen, deprivation of necessary
nutrients key to allow for the growth and metastasis of a cancer cell by
severing ties with its blood vessels and by incitement of the body’s immune
system (25). With the advent of this novel treatment, patients sometimes
experienced extensive sensitivity to light for a number of weeks after
introduction to the body. Another disadvantage with this type of treatment is
that its efficacy drops dramatically whilst treating large tumours as the light
can’t permeate to any large extent and make any credible impact in reducing its
size or ceasing proliferation to other tissues. It has been found through
extensive research that the inherent chemiluminescence of singlet oxygen may
experience amplification to ensure greater discernment of an often weak light
emission.  The specificity of the
photodynamic therapy ensures that only the target tumour undergoes this photon
wavelength selectivity and no damage is experienced by neighbouring tissues (19). 

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