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By Yousef Mahmoud and Bardya Rezaei, edited by Janvi WadhawanAbstractThis paper will discuss the history of the North Korea nuclear program and its potent threat. The paper will also explore the reasons behind the increase in testing of nuclear weapons by North Korea, the ways other nations (including both countries which have nuclear power and those who do not) have responded to this, and how any further damage or the outbreak of a war can be prevented. Description and Definition of the IssueIn addition to biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction, North Korea has established a nuclear program which has started in 1959 when North Korea signed a nuclear cooperation agreement with the USSR. In 2002, President George W. Bush declared North Korea as a force of evil and warned of the threat if its nuclear program is developed.  In 2003, North Korea withdrew from the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear weapons) whose main goal is to encourage the peaceful use of nuclear energy and prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.Since then, North Korea has conducted a number of nuclear tests with the latest being the launch of an ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) which has reached Alaska which relates to statement made by their foreign minister at the UN in 2004 naming the purpose behind their nuclear program as “self defence from a US nuclear threat”. Calls for sanctions to be imposed on North Korea by other signatories and members of the NPT as well as the UN have been made. After the election of President Donald Trump, and North Korea constantly striving for a missile which can reach as far as Alaska as well as a war of words between the leaders of the two nations, fears of a nuclear war have become more and more prominent. Henceforth, the solution trying to be found is one to either prevent North Korea from conducting further testing and making use of their nuclear weapons or try to restrict North Korea’s use of their nuclear resources as an energy source. The solution must also work in a manner which would not aggravate tensions between North Korea, the US and their respective allies.Glossary of the IssueNuclear weaponry  – explosive devices which derive their destructive force from nuclear reactions such as fission taking place in the missile. They have the ability to produce an extremely high amount of energy from Non-proliferation treaty – the NPT is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a cleaner source than fossil fuels.Aceder – countries which accept offer to become part of an international treatyRatifier – to ratify is to approve and give formal consent to be bound to a treaty and in this context it is countries which are members of the NPT and acknowledge it as fully valid.Non-signatories – countries which are not member of the NPT e.g. North KoreaRadioactive – a substance which is capable of emitting ionizing radiation or particlesICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) – a missile which is capable of being launched from one continent to the other e.g. from North Korea to the United States. Different explosives including hydrogen and nuclear bombs can be mounted onto these ICBMs.History of the Issue1959: Plans Begin for Nuclear Activities near Yongbyon1991: South and North Korea declare denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula1993: North Korea withdraws from NPT1998: NK test fires Taepodong-1, 1st long range rocket2006: Test fires of Taepodong-2, fails less than a minutes after launchUN Security council Demands Pyongyang halt missile program2006: First Nuclear Test2009: Launch of long-range rocket over Pacific2009: 2nd underground nuclear test2012: Successfully launches Unha-3 rocket2013: Carries out 3rd nuclear testCurrent StatusIn July 4th, Kim Jong Un personally oversaw the launch of a hwasong 14 ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), claiming that the missile would be able to reach Hawaii and Alaska as a response to a twitter PSA by trump; stating that a North Korean Nuclear Weapon will never be able to reach the US. July 5th, the US and South Korea launched a joint precision-guided missile test to demonstrate the possibility of a precision strike to North Korea. July 6th, Russia blocked a UN condemnation of the North Korean ICBM test, announcing that they were “unable” to identify if the missile was an ICBM or not. July 17th, South Korea’s Unification ministry offered to conduct military peace talks with north korea and in July 20th, North Korea rambasted South Korea’s proposal in a local newspaper. July 25th, during an interview with Pyongyang state run central news agency, a North Korean foreign spokesman said, “Should the US dare show even the slightest sign of attempt to remove our supreme leadership, we will strike a merciless blow at the heart of the US with our powerful nuclear hammer, honed and hardened over time.” July 28th, North Korea tested another Hwasong 14 ICBM, landing in the EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone) of Japan, sending both South Korean and Japanese officials into emergency meetings, this was followed by another joint precision missile test by SK and the US. Secretary of state Rex W. Tillerson condemned the launch, laying the blame of North Korea’s continuing advancement of the communist states missile program on Russia and China, saying “as the principal economic enablers of North Korea’s nuclear weapon and ballistic missile development program, China and Russia bear unique and special responsibility for this growing threat of regional and global stability”. July 30th, Japanese Prime Minister Shinz? Abe announced that he and Trump agreed to take further actions against North Korea after the latest ICBM test, both leaders agreed agreed to take “any means necessary” to protect Japan; the US successfully tested a terminal high altitude area defence system (THAAD) over Alaska, built to intercept missiles out of the air. July 31st, two US officials confirmed that the North Korean missile test on the 28th showed that the communist state was capable of hitting locations in the US including Chicago and Denver, this would put North Korea two years ahead of their expected advancement in missile technology. Aug 3rd, Pyongyang declared that the US can declare on more unexpected “gift packages” as a follow up to the July 28th test; National Security Adviser GEN.H.R Mcmaster responded that a pre-emptive strike against North Korea was on the table. Aug 5, UN SC imposes the largest ever imposed sanction on North Korea for consistent violation of UN resolutions. Aug 8, intelligence officials believe North Korea has a miniature nuclear warhead capable of fitting on an ICBM, without any confirmations; North Korea claims that they have already tested one. Later The Korean people’s army announced that they were reviewing military options to form attack positions around the US territory of Guam. Aug 11th, China tells North Korea that if it attacks first, China would stand back and let Washington destroy it, however, China also mentioned that if the US attacks first- China would intervene on North Korea’s behalf. Aug 14, intelligence officials suspect that North Korea’s sudden advancement in missile technology can be traced back to a Ukrainian missile factory that had fallen on hard times, answering how NK was able to obtain Nuclear ICBMs 2 years ahead of predictions. Aug 15, North Korea decides to stand down on the Guam plan, allowing the US to make the first move.Conclusion Despite multiple attempts, it seems that North Korea does not respond to simple condemnations, it is advisable to research imposed sanctions and decide whether or not they can be hardened. Within your policy statements, its important to maintain your delegations relationships with Russia and China, as both these countries’ possible action plans regarding the situation is unclear; refer to precedents in the 1950’s to understand how nuclear tension between large powers can heighten. Appeasement can be considered a possible solution, with regard and risk to North Korean powers escalating. Furthermore, maintaining western relations and supporting the buildup of WMDs by South Korea and the USA is provocative and could further inflame the arms race and lead North Korea to seek an arsenal capable of MAD.Works Cited:Andrew Buncombe New York. “North Korea’s nuclear threat now at ‘critical and imminent level’, says Japan.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 23 Oct. 2017, www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/north-korea-latest-us-threat-trump-kim-jong-un-japan-critical-imminent-level-a8015511.html.Osnos, Evan. “The Risk of Nuclear War with North Korea.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 22 Sept. 2017, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/09/18/the-risk-of-nuclear-war-with-north-korea.”North Korea and weapons of mass destruction.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Jan. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction.Jazeera, Al. “North Korea’s nuclear weapons: Here is what we know.” News | Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera, 1 Jan. 2018, www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/05/north-korea-testing-nuclear-weapons-170504072226461.html.”North Korea Nuclear Timeline Fast Facts” http://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/29/world/asia/north-korea-nuclear-timeline—fast-facts/index.html”North Koreas 3rd ICBM Launch” http://www.38north.org/2017/11/melleman112917/”How potent are North Koreas Threats?” http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-21710644″North Koreas Nuclear Accident Risks” https://www.cnbc.com/2017/12/19/kim-jong-un-north-korea-nuclear-accident-risks-rising.html”Trump Nuclear threat sparks concern over North Korea Tension” https://www.cbsnews.com/news/president-trump-kim-jong-un-nuclear-weapons-button-north-korea/http://www.nti.org/learn/countries/north-korea/