Animal (first person who created the politic philosophy

Animal Farm is an allegorical novel written by George Orwell. This novel reflects on the events leading up to the Russian Revolution in 1917 and then onto the Stalinist Era of the Soviet Union. Many of the events and characters in this novel are parallel to those of the Russian Revolution. In the first half of this novel, Orwell focuses on developing the theme of rebellion by his use of symbols and characters. Animal Farm (previously known has Manor Farm), Old Major, Snowball and Napoleon are the key figures that tie this novel to the Russian Revolution. 
The setting of Animal Farm is a dystopia as opposed to a utopia. At the start of the novel, the animals on the farm picture a communist Utopia, but that vision quickly changes to a totalitarian dictatorship. To comprehend Orwell’s parallels to the Russian Revolution, I was required to use a variety of reading strategies. Many different reading strategies like researching the historical basis, looking up the meaning of words and skimming and scanning the text helped me to more throughly understand the deeper and less obvious meanings of the text. Due to the fact that this novel was written during the time leading up to and during the Stalinist Era before WWII, this novel sheds light upon the Russian Revolution. Orwell retells history through the animals on the farm and their corrupt way of living. The pigs play the biggest role in conducting the take over as well as formulating the principles of a philosophy they call Animalism. On the farm many of the other animals believe that the pigs are the most clever, “the work of teaching and organizing the others fell naturally upon the pigs, who were generally recognized as being the cleverest of the animals” (Orwell 9). The pigs symbolize the false socialists within the Soviet Union. By researching the historical basis behind the Russian Revolution, I was able to find direct relations between the characters in this novel to real political figures during that time. Old Major serves as both Karl Marx (first person who created the politic philosophy behind Communism) and Vladimir Lenin. He was the first pig who inspired the rebellion when he shares the contents of his strange dream with the rest of the animals on the farm, “you have heard already about the strange dream that I had last night… I merely repeat, remember always your duty of enmity towards Man and all his ways. Whatever goes upon two legs is the enemy. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend” (Orwell 3,6). The phrase first recited by Old Major later becomes the propaganda for Animalism. Snowball and Napoleon resemble the historic relationship between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Leon Trotsky was the leader of the Communist Party, whereas Joseph Stalin was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In Animal Farm, the pigs play the role of the people who organized and controlled the Russian Revolution. This historically resembles the class of Russians who quickly turned the Communist Party towards totalitarianism. This event was mirrored in Animal Farm by the gradual assumption of power by the pigs. After Vladimir Lenin’s reign in power, the other Communist leaders wanted to be in control after his death. Snowball and Napoleon made it their duty to reduce the principles of Animalism to seven key commandments. After realizing that the other animals on the farm are having trouble with remembering the seven commandments, Snowball reduces the principles to one essential maxim, which he says contains the heart of Animalism: “Four legs good, two legs bad” (Orwell 22). This reduced language relates to another one of Orwell’s novel 1984. The Seven Commandments that Snowball and Napoleon originally formulated were a detailed mix of antihuman directives, moral value judgments, and utopian ideals. The new reductive slogan contains none of these elements. Similarly in 1984, Newspeak was the official language of Oceanian and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of INGSOC. This limits ones’ ability to think and speak without the fear of being caught by the thought police. In Animal Farm, the animals are forced to learn and recite “four legs good, two legs bad” which was Snowball and Napoleon’s attempt for animal unity. Orwell portrays this phrase as one example of how the top class (pigs), can abuse the language to control the lower class (the rest of the animals on the farm). By skimming and scanning the text, I was able to better see and understand Orwell’s use of allegory and symbolism. By doing further research on the Russian Revolution, I was then able to see the relations between the events and characters in the novel, to the ones that took place during the Russian Revolution in 1917. George Orwell himself was a democratic socialist, so they novel is written with the bias again Joseph Stalin (Napoleon). Knowing that Orwell and Stalin had completely different philosophies, I was able to look past the degrading character given to Napoleon, and the praise that was given to Snowball. I found that re-reading sections of texts I found to be the most challenging, allowed me to better understand what Orwell was trying to get across to the readers. When I came across a difficult section, I found that skimming and scanning, looking up the definition, and by researching the historical basis, I was able to better understand the text as a whole.