2. for the political and economic set-up of

2. Mahmood’s invasions disclosed the military weakness of India. It hurt the political fabric deeply and exposed the disunity of the country to aggressors. Several dynasties were uprooted forever and thousands of brave soldiers were killed on the battlefield and those who survived were felt humiliated and demoralized. A great number of civilian people were assassinated in cold blood by the invaders.

3. The chief aim of Mahmood was to plunder the wealth of India. Prior to his expeditions, India was a prosperous country and called ‘the golden bird’. A huge treasure had been gathering in the temples of India since centuries. Mahmood hit the economic condi­tion of India by reaping the harvest of gold and thus jeopardized the economic structure of the country.

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4. Mahmood’s expedition not only proved harmful for the political and economic set-up of the country but also destroyed the art and culture of the people of India. He devastated the cities, temples, idols and historical monuments so badly that they could never be restored for want of funds. It marred the cultural progress of the country and wounded the civilization and culture to a great extent.

5. Besides economic and cultural loss, India had to face the fanaticism of Mahmood. He compelled the inhabitants of India to accept Islam and used force for conversion. Muslim preachers also came to India along with warriors and they tried to convert as many Hindus to Islam as possible. A great number of Hindus were converted to the fold of Islam due to the efforts of these preachers. The bloody acts of Mahmood created a feeling of hatred among the Hindus towards the Muslims.

6. Mahmood captured several Hindus and made them slaves. He sold them in the slave markets of Baghdad. Samarkand and Bukhara. Excess of money and slaves encouraged immorality and luxury in Ghazni. The soldiers lost their previous valour and led the country towards downfall.

7. After the departure of Mahmood, the problem of resettle­ment of the uprooted people must have disturbed the petty chieftains who were humiliated and demoralized for want of resources but wanted to help their subjects from the core of their heart.

Thus, we see that the expeditions of Mahmood affected the political, economic, social, religious and cultural aspects of India. It disintegrated the political fabric, shook the economic structure, disrupted the society, and devastated the cultural set-up of the country. Therefore, to the Indian world of his day, Mahmood was a devil incarnate.