Abstract: smartphone. The users of a mobile technology


The profusion of
smartphones allows more people to have access to a telephone, a computer and
the Internet, all via one device. Despite this convenience, excessive usage and
habitual checking can cause signi?cant stress for smartphone users. With the
rapid development of mobile communications technologies, smartphones provide
people with additional convenience, overuse of it may have negative life effect
such as technostress. This study determines the in?uences of psychological
characteristics including locus of control (LOC) and social interaction anxiety
(SIA) towards technostress and compulsive smartphone usage. For this purpose, a
survey based method will be used to collect data from students.
Self-administered questionnaires will be distributed to the students of
Institute of Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore. After
data collection, a total of 150 questionnaires will be collected and entered
for data analysis. The statistical analysis will indicate the in?uences of
psychological characteristics towards compulsive usage and technostress.

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smartphone; technostress; compulsive usage; psychological characteristics; locus
of control; social interaction anxiety







1. Introduction:

The term
“technostress” was ?rst proposed in 1984 by psychologist Craig Brod in his book
Technostress: The Human Cost of the Computer Revolution. It is defined
as ”a modern disease of adaptation caused by an inability to cope with new
computer technologies in a healthy manner” (Brod, 1984).
Weil and Rosen, in their 1997 book TechnoStress: Coping With Technology @work
@home @play, expanded the de?nition of technostress to include “any
negative impact on attitudes, thoughts, behaviors, or body psychology caused
directly or indirectly by technology” (Weil &
Rosen, 1997). Clear symptoms of technostress include the
inability to concentrate on a single issue and the feeling of loss of control. At
the same time, it may inhibit an individual’s further learning or using
computer and information technology. However, the use of technology also
appears to also have negative effects on the psychological wellbeing of

In this study, technostress specifically
refers to stress related to the use of smartphone. The users of a mobile
technology who are familiar with the current operating technology encountering
specific stress caused by the characteristics of mobility and/or reachability
of the technology or suffering for a long period of time through continual
connection with that particular mobile technology (Li, 2015). Heavy smartphone usage has also been shown
to increase fatigue, sleep problems and depression, all of which are common
symptoms of stress. Charles et al. (2013) indicated that living under pressure
everyday produces long-term negative effects on users’ mental health. Since
mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are the most common communication
devices at present, users have no choice but to accept and use these devices
and mobile apps. Over-reliance on mobile devices eventually leads to compulsive
use and increases the occurrence of technostress. (Kuo-Lun,

1.1 Research

Past researcher
indicated that the antecedents of compulsive use and technostress in different
context may be dissimilar (Tarafdar, Tu, & Ragu-Nathan, 2010). The role of personality
traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness, and
neuroticism) on compulsive smartphone usage and technostress also has been
widely examined. Though past studies have demonstrated the relationships
between personality traits and compulsive behavior (Lee et al., 2014; Hung et
al., 2015; Tang et al., 2016), but few have used psychological characteristics
(locus of control, social interaction anxiety, need for touch, and materialism)
to explore the factors that impact the compulsive use of smartphone. However,
the influence of psychological characteristics on compulsive use of smartphone
and technology-related stress has not been well-examined, leaving a significant
research gap.

1.2 Purpose

The purpose of
this study is to investigate the effects of psychological characteristics
including locus of control (LOC) and social interaction anxiety (SIA) towards
compulsive smartphone usage and technostress among students of Institute of
Administrative Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore.


 2. Literature Review:

Various studies
have been done to investigate and explore the smartphone usage in every angle
of study in the field like as well as to study the effect of psychological
traits towards compulsive behavior and technostress. The previous research by
Roberts and Pirog (2013) has been determined to investigate the drivers of
technological addiction in college students – heavy users of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT). The findings result found that materialism and
impulsiveness drive both a dependence on cell phones and instant messaging. The
findings of above previous study will support the variables that will be used
in this study which is materialism (Roberts & Pirog, 2013).

Another research
by Shahibi et al. (2017), had highlighted the aim of the study of investigating
the dark side of smartphone trend. In this study, they had suggested that
compulsive usage of smartphones and technostress are positively related to
psychological traits, including locus of control, social interaction anxiety,
materialism and the need for touch. In addition, the gender differences also
found in the relationship (Shahibi, Abdul Aziz, Mara, Alam, & Selangor, 2017).