Abstract plans has been given but still we

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The objective of this study was to explore and
inform the problems facing education in the Asian country and to recommend the
resolution of these problems. On the positive side, the study would have carved
out the changes caused by independence and its repercussions. There is no doubt
in accepting the fact that education brings a couple of amendments to the
country’s social, political and cultural state; Although the amendment is still
slow, it will still have an impact on mass society. It will bring improvements
within the problem-solving structure through the use of style, structural
equipment, desired global systems and quality-based systems.

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Keywords:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1) Introduction:

Pakistan education system is having a bad
configuration over the years now. Education plays an important role for the
development of any society. All the nations of the world have reached this
scale of development only through the help of education but nothing else. In
Pakistan the education sector is not very encouraging. Because of the
corruption the education level is much below the desired level. As government
only pays attention on new admission of students but not paying any attention
on the quality or criteria of the education that is being provided at the
moment. Education is one of the cheapest way to success for nation socially,
economically and politically. From independence till now 23 policies and plans
has been given but still we could not reach to success. The primary and
secondary education has a declining trend in Pakistan. The focus by government
is only on the quantity of students in schools not on the quality of education
that is been given. In Pakistan poor are not agree to send their children to
schools because they want their children to work and earn to fulfil basic needs
of their family.

2)
Types of school system in Pakistan

2.1) Private
Sector

Class size is one of the major difference in
private vs govt. schools. The class size in private schools can be
approximately 40-50 students only. As this helps in better understanding in
learning process. Everyone who have money wants to get their child admitted in
private school foe better learning. The private school counts now 50% of the
enrollment only in the Punjab. There are number of largest private schools like
Beaconhouse, City school and Lahore grammar school etc. with population of over
180 million in country it was only possible by private schools to fulfill the desires
for good education. The success for private schools is the failure of Pakistan
government education system. So, without money and good jobs how can one afford
this costly education for their children.

2.2)
Government Sector

In Pakistan the government schools have
affordable fee structure. Government provides free books and monthly allowances
also. Now a days every student is been given 3 thousand rupees after every 3
months from government according to the monthly attendance of student. But
after all this comparing to private sector it doesn’t provide sufficient
things. Most of the schools do not have enough buildings for the students to
sit as strength of students is greater. In summer there is no alternative of
electricity load shedding in schools and students have to sit outside of the
classes. Classes are crowded with students with every class having 100 above
strength. So, how can the teacher interact with every student in class and how
can all students understand the teacher.

3) Native
language in education system

90% of the Pakistanis have been brought up
speaking their native language. But instead of speaking our native language
most of us lapse in English in every day speaking. Countries that are
succeeding have not forgotten their native language. Everywhere in the world
you go native language is being used. In our education system English is being
used as our native language. From school to university education been given is
in English language. No doubt that English is an International language and it
is also necessary to learn. But making it as our native language in education
system is not acceptable. We speak our native language at homes but when in
schools/universities learning is only in English so how can everyone have a
better understanding of their learning. Countries like China, France, Italy,
Japan, Turkey and many others use their native language in their education
system. So do not we? Is it because we are not proud of our national language?

4)
Quantitative Dimension

Over the years not much progress has been made
in the education system. Different data show that Pakistan education system is
struggling still now and not performing well. However the efforts of moulding
the curriculum in accordance with our various fields in the country. Following
table shows the enrolment of students in various schools over the past years.

Table
1: Enrolment in educational institutions through the years

Year

Primary
schools (in thousands)
 

Total

Female

Middle
schools
 (in thousands)

Total

Female

Secondary
schools
 (in thousands)

Total

Female

2005-06

25661                      11209

5322              2191

2370            945

2006-07

26223                      11523

5431              2264

2544          1005

2007-08

26579                      11672

5427              2279

2683          1058

2008-09

26903                      11894

5414              2298

2743          1100

2009-10

27534                      12206

5504              2337

2789          1111

2010-11

27476                      12179

5644              2421

2822          1133

2011-12

28191                      11946

6020              2573

2942          1188

2012-13

28075                      12366

6188              2653

3103          1258

2013-14

28709                      12682

6461              2798

3325          1350

2014-15

29436                      13041

6528              2813

3358          1364

Source:
Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2015, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government
of Pakistan

Statistics show that literacy levels continue
to be low as male literacy level is higher every year as compared to female.
But number of female are also increasing with time. Pakistan has the highest
number of private sectors that have foreign held examinations. Public sector
has been playing a major role in providing of education at all levels like
schools, colleges and universities. According to FBS survey there are 40,903
private schools in the country.

Education sector reforms were initiated in
2001by government which aimed targets for each sub sector shown following:

Literacy                                                                 
from 48%……….  to ………..62%

GER                                             
                         from 90%………..  to………. 100%

NER                                                                       from 67%…………
to……… 76%

Middle
school enrolment                                       from48%………….  to………56%

Secondary
school enrolment                                 from30.5%…………
to……….41%

Higher
education                                                  
from 8.6%…………..to………12%

Source:
Education Sector Reforms Action Plan 2001-2004, Ministry of Education,
Islamabad.

The quality assurance for education sector
reforms is directed towards reforms in teacher education and training together
changes in curriculum and assessment systems. Economic survey tells that
literacy levels have improved in Pakistan at a good pace.  Literacy rate was 56% in 2006-07 which has
increased to 62% in 2015-16.

Table
2: Institutions (Public, Other Public, Private Sector) by Province, and
Location

2015-16

Province/Region

Urban
(Total)

Rural
(Total)

Total

Punjab

27,174

77,367

105,178

Sindh

14,905

42,861

58,048

KP

4,135

30,802

34,937

Balochistan

2,869

11,373

14,242

AJ&K

1,040

7,198

8,238

GB

297

1,638

1,935

Fata

Nill

6,401

6,401

ICT

663

943

1,606

Pakistan
(Grand total)

51,083

178,583

230,585

Source:
Pakistan Education Statistics 2015-16

5) Problems
in Education

5.1)
Education System is based on Unequal Lines

Pakistan education system is on unequal line.
Public and private sector provide different kind of education. This creates a
sort of disparity among people, dividing into two parts.

5.2)
Regional Disparity

It is big cause for education system. The
schools in Baluchistan are not much applicable as that of Punjab. The literacy
rate in FATA is 29.5% in males and 3% in females.

5.3)
No Technical Education

Ratification which is a biggest flaw in the
educational policy which has never been removed from schools. Therefore, less
technical people are working who mean less.

5.4)
Low Funds

Funds allocated for education are very low as
compared to funds invested in other projects. Only 2.0 % of the total GDP is
spent on education that should be around 6% of the total GDP.

5.5) Less
trained Teachers

Government school teachers are not trained for
giving technical education. There should be trainings for teachers by the government,
so they don’t lack the modern techniques.

5.6)
Poverty

Poverty is one of the major factor that
restricts parents to send their children to schools. They send their children
to work as labor to earn money for the family.

5.7)
Academic Problems

Available
resources are not used as how they should be
Unequal
distribution of Faculties among Public & Private Sector
Management
Lacks
There
should be a high standard for every Private University
Focus
is on quantitative education rather than qualitative education.
No
attention is given to research and no support for it.

5.8)
Management Problems and issues

Ineffective
governance and management structures and practices
Strong
skepticism about the realization of reform
Political
behavior is present among students and teachers also
Poor
recruitment practices and inadequate development of faculty and staff

5.9)
Financial Problems

Inadequate
funding.
There
is no adjusted fee structure of private universities
No
share of Foreign Direct investment in Education sector
No
concept of Debt Financing in Education sector

5.10)
Social Problems

Moral
training is lacking in Higher Education Institutions
Westernization
is being promoted as a fashion
Creating
social misbalances

5.11)
Practical Problems

Internship facilities are lacking for students
of higher Education institutions and universities. Universities are not coordinated
with industrial, agricultural, and other sectors of the economy as they should be.

6) Gender
Bias in Education

Gender bias education means the difference of education
in male and female. If we look at the history of the world it becomes clear to us
that there is a great difference of education between men and women especially in
the Islamic countries. Pakistan being one of the largest Muslim country in the world
still has extreme gender inequality in education around the country despite the
Quran says “Iqra” meaning (read).  According
to the Rights of the Child (CRC), and Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) almost 77 million children worldwide are
not getting their basic education needs. According to these conventions girls
make up to 56 percent of these children worldwide. The Global Campaign for Education
(GCE) reports that in Pakistan more than 5.1 million primary school-aged
children are not attending school. And that the numbers of girls is 63% percent
of all figures. Absence from school among girls is allot worse in rural areas
of Pakistan because of the gender bias in education. According to the UN
Development Program (UNDP) 2010 report Pakistan is 120th in number out of 146
countries based on Gender-related Development Index. Most of the Pakistani
society is not on the side of giving education to girls. Girls who are enrolled
in schools still do not attend because of their parental issues. The reasons
also include gender discrimination, marriage at early age and physical and
mental violence against girls. There are attitudes, cultural and social
beliefs, stereotypes in Pakistan that discriminate girls from getting equal
education as of boys. Pakistan’s general tendency in society is to invest in
boy education, rather than girls. Such discrimination leads to poor self-esteem
among girls in Pakistan.

Females face exploitation and abuse at many
levels and are prevented from getting their basic educational needs. At last,
gender bias in education prevents women from participating in the social,
economic, political and spiritual life of the country.

7) Future
Challenges

Pakistan has experienced a lot of growth in
enrollment after independence, such exponential growth has been accompanied by
manifold challenges and dilemmas.

This section discussion is at getting
everybody in school and provide them with quality education.

Efficiency
and Quality

Teachers are the most important component of
any country’s education. They are the environment and management structures.
Every success in education depends on their teaching how well they teach. The
education system must change, and training programs have to be developed. It
should not be taken for granted that answers to all the problems are available,
but with the right kind of efforts and the institutional preparedness, we
should be capable of discovering answers for all problems.

Relevance
of Education

Pakistan’s policy makers have been preoccupied
in looking ways of making the content of education more effective and the
methods of delivery more cost-effective. The attention is on preparing children
to participate actively in national building. The lack of social demand for
education is related to the fact that families and communities do not value or
are ambivalent about formal education.

Inadequate
Research Activities

Research is a desire to look for and find the
better solutions to our problems or better understanding. Lack of research
issue is discussed frequently also in academic institutions in Pakistan. In
these discussions, lack of funding and of adequate facilities are the major
reasons that research has not been conducted. Perhaps the single most
significant impediment in Pakistan to research, and also quality higher
education, is the near-zero tolerance for dissent in educational institutions.
Now the government is providing funds for this purpose. It is now up to the
universities to do their job as desired.

8)Conclusion

Education provides the base for any countries development.
The reason because poor countries do not grow is that their education system is
of poor quality. So, Attention must be on to improve the vocational and
technical training to make Pakistan’s youth a better asset from now. As, these
reforms required in Pakistan education can be done by both public and private
participation. This will help to pull of country’s major population from
illiteracy. As education is the key to success.