Adequate be provided. The bed-head must also have

Adequate number of window type air conditioners with efficient filters (Less than 10 microns) is the next best option.

2. Lighting and Electrification:

The overall lighting requirement in ICU is for subdued illumination for the patient bed, with capacity for increasing it in case of need. The main light at the bed-head should therefore be fitted with a dimmer switch.

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Additionally a high-intensity emergency light or spot focusing light should also be provided. The bed-head must also have an emergency buzzer switch connected to the central buzzer and location panel at central nursing station.

Due to multiple electrical gadgets required to be used for the patient, each room or patient cubicle should have at least four or five power sockets on either side of the bed, two of which must be of 15 Amp rating, to plug on mobile X-ray machine or other high power equipment.

Although most modern electrical equipment has adequate protection against leakage of electric current, effective grounding of all power sockets should be ensured. Frequent preventive maintenance checks of equipment by competent technician is advised for all electrical / electronic gadgets in ICU.

3. Diagnostic Support:

A multidisciplinary ICU should have a round the clock access to radiology, imaging, laboratory services and physiotherapy.

4. Equipment Maintenance:

In-house trained technicians to carry out preventive main­tenance of equipment on a regular basis, and to promptly attend to breakdown of equipment, is of vital importance. This aspect is neglected in many units.

5. Stand-by Generator:

A reliable alternate source of power is a must for ICU. The entire ICU must be connected to a stand-by generator. The hospital stand-by generator should be powerful enough to take on the full load of the ICU, including a large number of equipment.

The generator should be capable of auto­matically switching on within seconds on failure of the main electrical supply.

6. Visitor Lounge:

For relatives and friends, a visit to a patient in seriously ill condition is taken as a social and traditional obligation in our society.

A visitor’s lounge, where such people can wait their turn to go in for a brief period to see the patient thus becomes almost a necessity near the ICU. In an adjoining cubicle at the entrance, space can be provided for donning caps and masks, and gown if considered necessary.